Pulmonary tuberculosis: radiological features in west Africans coinfected with HIV.
ABSTRACT A retrospective study was performed to document and compare the radiological appearances of newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in groups of West African patients with (n = 86) and without (n = 106) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Analysis of chest radiographs showed that the HIV-positive group had less consolidation (mean 3.1 zones vs 3.7 zones; p < 0.05), less apical involvement (64.0% vs 85.5%; p < 0.001), less bronchopulmonary spread (27.9% vs 58.5%; p < 0.001), less volume loss (53.5% vs 76.4%; p < 0.001) and less pleural thickening (46.5% vs 61.3%; p < 0.05) compared with the HIV-negative group. However, HIV-positive patients more commonly had pleural effusions (17.4% vs 6.6%; p < 0.05) and lymphadenopathy (9.3% vs 1.9%; p < 0.05). Previous studies on this subject from sub-Saharan Africa have focused either on selected patient groups likely to have more advanced immunosuppression or on smear-positive cases only, or where there has been only limited radiological documentation. This study suggests that the highly significant differences that exist may not be as frequent as previously shown. The lower frequencies of bronchopulmonary pattern of consolidation and pleural thickening in HIV-positive subjects have not previously been documented. The possible reasons for the altered radiographic appearance of PTB in HIV positive subjects are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: There is an increasing incidence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection. This has led to an increasing number of atypical features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We postulated that the type 4 hypersensitivity response causing granulomatous inflammation may be disrupted by the HIV resulting in less vertebral body destruction. This study compares the MRI features of spinal tuberculosis in HIV positive and negative patients. Fifty patients with confirmed spinal tuberculosis, HIV status and available MRI scans at a single institution from 2003-2009 were identified. HIV status was positive in 20 and negative in 30. Females were predominant (34:16). The HIV positive group was younger at 32.4 versus 46 years (P=0.008). Blood parameters (WCC, ESR, Hb, Lymphocyte count) were not significantly different between the HIV groups. MRI scans were reviewed by a radiologist who was blinded to the HIV status. Site, extent of disease, body collapse, abscess location and volume, kyphotic deformity and cord signal were reported. There was no difference between the number of vertebral bodies affection with TB involvement, presence of cord signal or incidence of non-contiguous lesions. The HIV negative group had significantly more total vertebral collapse (P=0.036) and greater kyphosis (P=0.002). The HIV positive group had a trend to larger anterior epidural pus collection (P=0.2). HIV negative patients demonstrate greater tuberculous destruction in terms of total percentage body collapse and resultant kyphosis. There is no difference in the incidence of cord signal or presence of non-contiguous lesions. HIV positive patients show a trend to a greater epidural abscess volume. This difference may be explained by the reduced autoimmune response of the type 4 hypersensitivity reaction caused by the HIV infection.Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 03/2012; 46(2):186-90. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In patients with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) in resource-constrained settings, smear-negative disease has been associated with higher mortality than smear-positive disease. Higher reported mortality may be due to misdiagnosis, diagnostic delays, or because smear-negative disease indicates more advanced immune suppression. We analyzed culture-confirmed, pulmonary TB among patients with TB and HIV in the United States from 1993-2008 to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) for smear-negative disease by demographic and clinical characteristics. Allowing two years for treatment outcome to be reported, we determined hazard ratios (HRs) for survival by smear status, adjusted for significant covariates on patients before 2006. Among 16,710 cases with sputum smear results, 6,739 (39%) were sputum smear-negative and 9,971 (58%) were sputum smear-positive. The prevalence of smear-negative disease was lower in male patients (PR: 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86-0.93) and in those who were homeless (PR: 0.92, CI: 0.87-0.97) or used alcohol excessively (PR: 0.91, CI: 0.87-0.95), and higher in persons diagnosed while incarcerated (PR: 1.20, CI: 1.13-1.27). Patients with smear-negative disease had better survival compared to patients with smear-positive disease, both before (HR: 0.82, CI: 0.75-0.90) and after (HR: 0.81, CI: 0.71-0.92) the introduction of combination anti-retroviral therapy. In the United States, smear-negative pulmonary TB in patients with HIV was not associated with higher mortality, in contrast to what has been documented in high TB burden settings. Smear-negative TB can be routinely and definitively diagnosed in the United States, whereas high-burden countries often rely solely on AFB-smear microscopy. This difference could contribute to diagnostic and treatment delays in high-burden countries, possibly resulting in higher mortality.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47855. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to discern differences in the clinical and radiologic presentations of intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenitis in adult patients with and those without HIV infection. Between 2000 and 2010, 66 patients (28 men, 38 women; mean age, 45 ± 13.9 years) were found to have intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenitis. Of these patients, 17 (26%) (15 men, two women; mean age, 47 ± 9.9 years) were HIV-seropositive. Thoracic CT scans were evaluated for involved lymph node stations, long-axis diameter of involved lymph nodes, presence of central necrosis in enlarged nodes, and other associated findings. In HIV-positive patients, tuberculous lymphadenitis had more multifocal (mean number of involved nodal stations, 8.4 versus 3.6; p < 0.001) nodal involvement, had smaller nodes (mean long-axis diameter, 17 mm versus 21 mm; p = 0.004), and was more frequently associated with lung parenchymal lesions and extrathoracic lymph node and organ involvement (p < 0.05) than in HIV-negative patients. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was the sole manifestation of tuberculous infection in 22 of 49 (45%) HIV-negative patients and in 2 of 17 (12%) HIV-positive patients (p = 0.018). Tuberculous lymphadenitis in patients with HIV infection is characterized by multiple-station lymphadenitis with extensive lung parenchymal, extrathoracic lymph node, and extrathoracic organ involvement.American Journal of Roentgenology 12/2012; 199(6):1234-40. · 2.90 Impact Factor