Inhaled nitric oxide reduces pulmonary artery pressures in portopulmonary hypertension.
ABSTRACT Pulmonary artery hypertension in association with liver failure (portopulmonary hypertension [PPHTN]) is a significant barrier to liver transplantation because patients with this condition have a very high mortality when transplantation is undertaken. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO), a potent pulmonary vasodilator, reduces pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in some patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, but its effect in patients with PPHTN is controversial. We investigated the hemodynamic effects of inhaled NO in 6 patients with PPHTN. Five of 6 patients responded to NO inhalation with decreases in PAP and pulmonary vascular resistance of greater than 10%; these decreases were statistically significant at NO concentrations of 10 and 30 ppm. Cardiac output did not significantly change. We conclude that inhalation of NO reduces PAPs in some patients with PPHTN.
- SourceAvailable from: Eugenia Hopps
Article: Portopulmonary hypertension.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Portopulmonary hypertension (PPHT) is a respiratory complication of portal hypertension, defined as an increase in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of > 25 mmHg with an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance of > 240 dyn.s/cm(-5) and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ( < 15 mmHg), which often occurs in subjects with liver cirrhosis. Histopathological features of PPHT are endothelial and smooth-muscle cell proliferation and fibrosis leading to luminal obstruction in the resistance arteries. The pathogenesis of PPHT may result from an imbalance between vasoconstrictor and vasodilating factors. The most common pulmonary symptom is exertional dyspnea; fatigue, chest pain and syncope occur more often at an advanced stage. Edema, ascites and prominent jugular veins are signs of both decompensated hepatic cirrhosis and right ventricular failure. Right heart catheterisation is the gold standard for the diagnosis and defines PPHT in mild disease with PAP less than 35 mmHg, moderate disease with PAP between 35 and 45 mmHg, and severe disease with PAP of 45 mmHg or higher. The medical treatment of portopulmonary hypertension is based on the treatment of other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension, including vasomodulating pharmacologic agents. Liver transplantation is accompanied by high risk of mortality, generally due to acute right ventricular failure and cardiovascular collapse. The prognosis of PPHT is poor with mean survival of 15 months.Clinical and investigative medicine. Medecine clinique et experimentale 01/2011; 34(3):E111-8. · 1.15 Impact Factor
Article: The heart in liver transplantation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The heart and liver are organs that are closely related in both health and disease. Patients who undergo liver transplantation may suffer from heart disease that is: (a) related to the original cause of the liver disease such as hemochromatosis, (b) related to the liver disease itself, or (c) related to other associated conditions. Furthermore, liver transplantation is one of the most cardiovascular stressful events that a patient with cirrhosis may undergo. After liver transplantation, the progression of pre-existing or the development of new-onset cardiac disease may occur. This article reviews the relationship between the heart and liver transplantation in the pre-transplant, intra-operative, and post-transplant periods.Journal of Hepatology 11/2010; 54(4):810-22. · 9.86 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is a part of group 1 pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary hypertension associated with portal hypertension). Liver transplantation (LTx) may be curative, but is usually restricted to patients with mild-to-moderate POPH. The presence of severe POPH may be a contraindication to transplantation because of the elevated risk of peritransplantation and post-transplantation morbidity and mortality. This report describes a series of seven patients with onset of moderate (two patients) or severe (five patients) POPH before LTx, of whom six were treated with oral vasodilator therapy for POPH. Although previous studies recommend aggressive parenteral prostacyclin therapy (epoprostenol), we describe the opportunity to treat cases of severe POPH with an oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil) and/or an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan/ambrisentan) as a bridge to successful LTx in selected patients.European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 12/2012; · 1.66 Impact Factor