Selective diapedesis of Th1 cells induced by endothelial cell RANTES.
ABSTRACT Differentiated CD4 T cells can be divided into Th1 and Th2 types based on the cytokines they produce. Differential expression of chemokine receptors on either the Th1-type or the Th2-type cell suggests that Th1-type and Th2-type cells differ not only in cytokine production but also in their migratory capacity. Stimulation of endothelial cells with IFN-gamma selectively enhanced transmigration of Th1-type cells, but not Th2-type cells, in a transendothelial migration assay. Enhanced transmigration of Th1-type cells was dependent on the chemokine RANTES produced by endothelial cells, as indicated by the findings that Ab neutralizing RANTES, or Ab to its receptor CCR5, inhibited transmigration. Neutralizing Ab to chemokines macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha or monocyte chemotactic protein-1 did not inhibit Th1 selective migration. Whereas anti-CD18 and anti-CD54 blocked basal levels of Th1-type cell adherence to endothelial cells and also inhibited transmigration, anti-RANTES blocked only transmigration, indicating that RANTES appeared to induce transmigration of adherent T cells. RANTES seemed to promote diapedesis of adherent Th1-type cells by augmenting pseudopod formation in conjunction with actin rearrangement by a pathway that was sensitive to the phosphoinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin and to the Rho GTP-binding protein inhibitor, epidermal cell differentiation inhibitor. Thus, enhancement of Th1-type selective migration appeared to be responsible for the diapedesis induced by interaction between CCR5 on Th1-type cells and RANTES produced by endothelial cells. Further evidence that CCR5 and RANTES play a modulatory role in Th1-type selective migration derives from the abrogation of this migration by anti-RANTES and anti-CCR5 Abs.
Article: Nasal cardiac myosin peptide treatment and OX40 blockade protect mice from acute and chronic virally-induced myocarditis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myocarditis poses a severe health problem, can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and death, and is thought to be triggered by infections. Enteroviruses such as Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) have been implicated as a culprit, since they can cause acute and chronic heart disease in susceptible mice. CVB was detected in human cardiac myocytes in some cases, whereas acute CVB infection was thought to have caused death. Here we studied, whether nasal administration of cardiac myosin (CM) major histocompatibility class (MHC) II peptides CM₉₄₇-₉₆₀ and CM₇₃₅-₇₄₇ and OX40 blockade would be able to ameliorate immunopathology and heart disease in BALB/C mice infected with CVB3. We found that nasal CM-peptide prophylactic treatment significantly reduced myocarditis and mortality by enhancing Treg and IL-10 induction and that blockade of OX40 signaling could reduce heart inflammation when administered late during pathogenesis. Altogether, these results chart the way for novel prevention and intervention strategies for viral myocarditis.Journal of Autoimmunity 02/2011; 36(3-4):210-20. · 7.37 Impact Factor