Recently, the human orthologue to the cell cycle checkpoint genes rad17 (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and RAD24 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), called HRAD17, has been isolated and localized to chromosome 4. Independently, we have isolated the HRAD17 transcript and mapped it to chromosome 5q13 between the CCNB1 and BTF2p44cen genes. Furthermore, we have identified the complete exon-intron structure of HRAD17. The gene is organized into 14 exons, the translation initiation site lies within exon 2, and the stop codon within exon 14. Two further HRAD17 pseudogenes, HRAD17P1 and HRAD17P2, were identified on chromosomes 7p21 and 13q14.3, respectively, encompassing exons 3-14 and bearing 84% and 93% homology, respectively. Additionally, we have isolated the coding region of the mouse orthologue, Mrad17, and mapped it on chromosome 13 between Ccnb1 and Btf2p44, the same two genes between which it maps in human. The predicted Mrad17 polypeptide encompasses 687 amino acids and shows 89% similarity to HRAD17. Both genes are most highly expressed in testis compared to all other tissues, as shown by Northern blot hybridization. Histological studies, based on in situ hybridization with radioactively labeled antisense HRAD17 riboprobes, showed a strong expression within the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubuli in normal testis whereas in testicular tumors (seminomas) only weak, diffuse signals were seen. In light of the known function of the yeast orthologue at meiotic and mitotic checkpoints, as well as the strong expression in testis and weak expression in seminomas, we suggest a putative involvement of HRAD 17 in testicular tumorigenesis.
"The structural counterpart in S. cerevisiae is RAD24. In both human and mouse, homologs of the Rad17 gene, hRAD17 and mRad17, respectively, have been identified and characterized (Bluyssen et al, 1999; von Deimling et al, 1999). Homology is also detected between the Rad17 homologs and proteins of mammalian replication factor C (RFC). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic defects in DNA repair mechanisms and cell cycle checkpoint (CCC) genes result in increased genomic instability and cancer predisposition. Discovery of mammalian homologs of yeast CCC genes suggests conservation of checkpoint mechanisms between yeast and mammals. However, the role of many CCC genes in higher eukaryotes remains elusive. Here, we report that targeted deletion of an N-terminal part of mRad17, the mouse homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad17 checkpoint clamp-loader component, resulted in embryonic lethality during early/mid-gestation. In contrast to mouse embryos, embryonic stem (ES) cells, isolated from mRad17(5'Delta/5'Delta) embryos, produced truncated mRad17 and were viable. These cells displayed hypersensitivity to various DNA-damaging agents. Surprisingly, mRad17(5'Delta/5'Delta) ES cells were able to arrest cell cycle progression upon induction of DNA damage. However, they displayed impaired homologous recombination as evidenced by a strongly reduced gene targeting efficiency. In addition to a possible role in DNA damage-induced CCC, based on sequence homology, our results indicate that mRad17 has a function in DNA damage-dependent recombination that may be responsible for the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents.
The EMBO Journal 10/2004; 23(17):3548-58. DOI:10.1038/sj.emboj.7600353 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, causing progressive weakness of the limbs and trunk, followed by muscle atrophy. SMA is one of the most frequent autosomal recessive diseases, with a carrier frequency of 1 in 50 and the most common genetic cause of childhood mortality. The phenotype is extremely variable, and patients have been classified in type I-III SMA based on age at onset and clinical course. All three types of SMA are caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron gene (SMN1). There are two almost identical copies, SMN1 and SMN2, present on chromosome 5q13. Only homozygous absence of SMN1 is responsible for SMA, while homozygous absence of SMN2, found in about 5% of controls, has no clinical phenotype. Ninety-six percent of SMA patients display mutations in SMN1, while 4% are unlinked to 5q13. Of the 5q13-linked SMA patients, 96.4% show homozygous absence of SMN1 exons 7 and 8 or exon 7 only, whereas 3. 6% present a compound heterozygosity with a subtle mutation on one chromosome and a deletion/gene conversion on the other chromosome. Among the 23 different subtle mutations described so far, the Y272C missense mutation is the most frequent one, at 20%. Given this uniform mutation spectrum, direct molecular genetic testing is an easy and rapid analysis for most of the SMA patients. Direct testing of heterozygotes, while not trivial, is compromised by the presence of two SMN1 copies per chromosome in about 4% of individuals. The number of SMN2 copies modulates the SMA phenotype. Nevertheless, it should not be used for prediction of severity of the SMA.
Human Mutation 03/2000; 15(3):228-37. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(200003)15:3<228::AID-HUMU3>3.0.CO;2-9 · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The orthologous genomic segments on mouse chromosome 13D1-D3 and human chromosome 5q11.2-q13.3 have been extensively studied because of their involvement in two distinct disease phenotypes, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) in human and susceptibility to Legionella pneumophila (determined by Lgn1) in mice. The overlapping intervals in both species contain genomic amplifications of distinct structure, indicating an independent origin. We have endeavored to construct a comprehensive comparative gene map of the mouse and human Lgn1/SMA intervals in the hopes that the origins and maintenance of the genomic amplifications may become clear. Our comparative gene map demonstrates that the only regional gene in common between the amplified segments in mouse and human is the Lgn1 candidate Naip/NAIP. We have also determined that mice of the 129 haplotype harbor seven intact and three partial Naip transcription units arranged in a closely linked direct repeat on chromosome 13. Several, but not all, of these Naip loci are contained within the Lgn1 critical interval. We present a model for the origins of the mouse and human repetitive arrays from a common ancestral haplotype.
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