Two subseries of nonquaternized (5a-10a) and quaternized derivatives (5b-10b) related to oxotremorine and oxotremorine-M were synthesized and tested. The agonist potency at the muscarinic receptor subtypes of the new compounds was estimated in three classical in vitro functional assays: M1 rabbit vas deferens, M2 guinea pig left atrium and M3 guinea pig ileum. In addition, the occurrence of central muscarinic effects was evaluated as tremorigenic activity after intraperitoneal administration in mice. In in vitro tests a nonselective muscarinic activity was exhibited by all the derivatives with potencies values that, in some instances, surpassed those of the reference compounds (i.e. 8b). Functional selectivity was evidenced only for the oxotremorine-like derivative 9a, which behaved as a mixed M3-agonist/M1-antagonist (pD2 = 5.85; pA2 = 4.76, respectively). In in vivo tests non-quaternary compounds were able to evoke central muscarinic effects, with a potency order parallel to that observed in vitro.
"Efficacy is indicated by dot colour – green: agonist activity, red: antagonist activity. Values for a–d are taken from Dallanoce et al. (1999), for W84 from Tränkle et al., 1998, for 1a–1c from Disingrini et al. (2006) and for 1d from Antony et al. (2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dualsteric ligands represent a novel mode of targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These compounds attach simultaneously to both, the orthosteric transmitter binding site and an additional allosteric binding area of a receptor protein. This approach allows the exploitation of favourable characteristics of the orthosteric and the allosteric site by a single ligand molecule. The orthosteric interaction provides high affinity binding and activation of receptors. The allosteric interaction yields receptor subtype-selectivity and, in addition, may modulate both, efficacy and intracellular signalling pathway activation. Insight into the spatial arrangement of the orthosteric and the allosteric site is far advanced in the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and the design of dualsteric muscarinic agonists has now been accomplished. Using the muscarinic receptor as a paradigm, this review summarizes the way from suggestive evidence for an orthosteric/allosteric overlap binding to the rational design and experimental validation of dualsteric ligands. As allosteric interactions are increasingly described for GPCRs and as insight into the spatial geometry of ligand/GPCR-complexes is growing impressively, the rational design of dualsteric drugs is a promising new approach to achieve fine-tuned GPCR-modulation.
British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2010; 159(5):997-1008. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00601.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two subsets of tertiary amines (1a-6a) and methiodides (1b-6b) with a structural resemblance to oxotremorine and oxotremorine-M were tested at rabbit vas deferens (M1), guinea pig left atrium (M2), guinea pig ileum and urinary bladder (M3) muscarinic receptor subtypes. The pharmacological profile of the derivatives under study has been discussed by evaluating their potency, affinity and efficacy as well as the regional differences in muscarinic receptor occupancy.
Life Sciences 06/2000; 67(6):717-723. DOI:10.1016/S0024-3205(00)00661-5 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central and peripheral effects of a series of Oxotremorine/Oxotremorine-M derivatives, previously characterized as muscarinic agonists in isolated preparations, were investigated in in vivo experiments. The molecules were tested for their antinociceptive activity (formalin licking and acetic acid writhing tests) and for their ability to induce tremor in mice. Peripheral cholinergic effects such as salivation, bradycardia, hypotension and intestinal hypermotility were studied in anaesthetized rats. All of the acetylenic compounds acted as muscarinic analgesics displaying the same order of potency shown in in vitro studies. The Oxotremorine-like subset showed a clearer distinction between doses producing antinociception and doses exerting undesirable central/peripheral side effects compared to the Oxotremorine-M derivatives. The most promising profile was displayed by the isoxazolin-3-one Oxotremorine-like derivative (compound 1a), which was characterized by a wider therapeutic window than that of the parent molecule Oxotremorine. Indeed, it produced atropine-sensitive analgesia (ID50 about 0.1 mg/kg i.p.) in the absence of tremorogenic (EC50 2.73 mg/kg i.p.) and cardiovascular effects while lethality occurred only at higher doses (LD50 19 mg/kg i.p.). These results suggest that such a derivative could be a candidate for further development of selective muscarinic analgesics.
Life Sciences 04/2001; 68(15):1775-85. DOI:10.1016/S0024-3205(01)00973-0 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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