Protection by live, attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus against heterologous challenge.
ABSTRACT We examined the ability of a live, attenuated deletion mutant of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), SIVmac239Delta3, which is missing nef and vpr genes, to protect against challenge by heterologous strains SHIV89.6p and SIVsmE660. SHIV89.6p is a pathogenic, recombinant SIV in which the envelope gene has been replaced by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gene; other structural genes of SHIV89.6p are derived from SIVmac239. SIVsmE660 is an uncloned, pathogenic, independent isolate from the same primate lentivirus subgrouping as SIVmac but with natural sequence variation in all structural genes. The challenge with SHIV89.6p was performed by the intravenous route 37 months after the time of vaccination. By the criteria of CD4(+) cell counts and disease, strong protection against the SHIV89.6p challenge was observed in four of four vaccinated monkeys despite the complete mismatch of env sequences. However, SHIV89.6p infection was established in all four previously vaccinated monkeys and three of the four developed fluctuating viral loads between 300 and 10,000 RNA copy equivalents per ml of plasma 30 to 72 weeks postchallenge. When other vaccinated monkeys were challenged with SIVsmE660 at 28 months after the time of vaccination, SIV loads were lower than those observed in unvaccinated controls but the level of protection was less than what was observed against SHIV89.6p in these experiments and considerably less than the level of protection against SIVmac251 observed in previous experiments. These results demonstrate a variable level of vaccine protection by live, attenuated SIVmac239Delta3 against heterologous virus challenge and suggest that even live, attenuated vaccine approaches for AIDS will face significant hurdles in providing protection against the natural variation present in field strains of virus. The results further suggest that factors other than anti-Env immune responses can be principally responsible for the vaccine protection by live, attenuated SIV.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: David C Montefiori, Jun 19, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Novel HIV vaccine vectors and strategies are needed to control HIV/AIDS epidemic in humans and eradicate the infection. DNA vaccines alone failed to induce immune responses robust enough to control HIV-1. Development of lentivirus-based DNA vaccines deficient for integration and with a limited replication capacity is an innovative and promising approach. This type of vaccine mimics the early stages of virus infection/replication like the live-attenuated viruses but lacks the inconvenient integration and persistence associated with disease. We developed a novel lentivector DNA vaccine "CAL-SHIV-IN(-)" that undergoes a single round of replication in the absence of integration resulting in augmented expression of vaccine antigens in vivo. Vaccine gene expression is under control of the LTRs of a naturally attenuated lentivirus, Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) the natural goat lentivirus. The safety of this vaccine prototype was increased by the removal of the integrase coding sequences from the pol gene. We examined the functional properties of this lentivector DNA in cell culture and the immunogenicity in mouse models. Viral proteins were expressed in transfected cells, assembled into viral particles that were able to transduce once target permissive cells. Unlike the parental replication-competent SHIV-KU2 that was detected in DNA samples from any of the serial passage infected cells, CAL-SHIV-IN(-) DNA was detected only in target cells of the first round of infection, hence demonstrating the single cycle replication of the vaccine. A single dose DNA immunization of humanized NOD/SCID/β2 mice showed a substantial increase of IFN-γ-ELISPOT in splenocytes compared to the former replication and integration defective Δ4SHIV-KU2 DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Vaccine 03/2015; 33(19). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.03.021 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Immunization of macaques with attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) with deletions in nef (SIVΔnef) is shown to elicit protective immunity to infection by pathogenic SIV, yet the mechanisms that orchestrate protection and prevent pathogenesis remains unknown. We utilized whole-genome transcriptional profiling to reveal molecular signatures of protective immunity in circulating CD8 þ T cells of rhesus macaques vaccinated with SIVmac239Δnef and challenged with pathogenic SIVmac251. Our findings suggest that protective immunity to pathogenic SIV infection induced by SIVmac239Δnef is associated with balanced induction of T cell activation and immunoregulatory mechanisms and dampened activation of interferon-induced signaling pathways and cytolytic enzyme production as compared with pathogenic SIVmac251 infection of unvaccinated controls. We provide evidence that protective immunity to SIVmac251 correlates with induction of biomarkers of T cell activation, differentiation, signaling, and adhesion that were down regulated in unvaccinated controls. The study highlights potential immunomodulatory networks associated with protective immunity against the virus.Virology 10/2014; 2014 Oct 1(468-470C):581-591. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.09.013 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antigen-presenting viral vectors have been extensively used as vesicles for the presentation of antigens to the immune system in numerous vaccine strategies. Particularly in HIV vaccine development efforts, two main viral vectors have been used as antigen carriers: (a) live attenuated vectors and (b) virus-like particles (VLPs); the former, although highly effective in animal studies, cannot be clinically tested in humans due to safety issues and the latter have failed to induce broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies. For more than two decades, Inoviruses (non-lytic bacterial phages) have also been utilized as antigen carriers in several vaccine studies. Inoviral vectors are important antigen-carriers in vaccine development due to their ability to present an antigen on their outer architecture in many copies and to their natural high immunogenicity. Numerous fundamental studies have been conducted, which have established the unique properties of antigen-displayed inoviral vectors in HIV vaccine efforts. The recent isolation of new potent anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies provides a new momentum in this emerging technology.Current HIV research 02/2014; DOI:10.2174/1570162X12666140209135651 · 2.14 Impact Factor