Case of Staphylococcus schleiferi endocarditis and a simple scheme to identify clumping factor-positive staphylococci.
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus schleiferi is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus infrequently reported as a human pathogen. We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis attributed to this organism, contrast it to another Staphylococcus species that gives similar clumping factor results (S. lugdunensis), and propose a simple, effective identification scheme for identification of clumping factor-positive staphylococci.
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ABSTRACT: To define clinical differences between coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus schleiferi infections in dogs and to identify risk factors for the isolation of oxacillin-resistant S schleiferi. Retrospective case series. 225 dogs (yielding 225 S schleiferi isolates). Information obtained from affected dogs' medical records included isolate body site source, antimicrobial treatments, and primary disease. For each dog, the S schleiferi isolate was characterized and antimicrobial susceptibility data were recorded. Risk factors for infection based on coagulase status and for S schleiferi oxacillin resistance were investigated. Allergic dermatitis was the most common underlying disease (111/225 dogs). Ears (102 [45%]) and skin (95 [42%]) were sources of most of the 225 isolates. Isolate coagulase status was not significantly associated with any patient-level factors. Of the 225 isolates, 129 (57%) were oxacillin resistant. Coagulase-negative isolates were more likely to be oxacillin resistant than were coagulase-positive isolates (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.0). Administration of penicillin-based or first-generation cephalosporin drugs (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.9) and third-generation cephalosporins (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 12.3) within 30 days prior to culture were risk factors for oxacillin resistance. Results suggested that coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive S schleiferi are potential pathogens in dogs and are often oxacillin resistant. Recent patient treatments with penicillin or cephalosporin were risk factors for oxacillin resistance. In clinical cases, full speciation of all Staphylococcus isolates should be performed and microbial treatments should be selected on the basis of results of susceptibility testing.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 12/2011; 239(12):1566-73. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been shown that people and pets can harbour identical strains of meticillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci when they share an environment. Veterinary dermatology practitioners are a professional group with a high incidence of exposure to animals infected by Staphylococcus spp. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of carriage of MR Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MR S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and MR S. schleiferi (MRSS) by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their personal pets. A swab technique and selective media were used to screen 171 veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets (258 dogs and 160 cats). Samples were shipped by over-night carrier. Human subjects completed a 22-question survey of demographic and epidemiologic data relevant to staphylococcal transmission. The 171 human-source samples yielded six MRSA (3.5%), nine MRSP (5.3%) and four MRSS (2.3%) isolates, while 418 animal-source samples yielded eight MRSA (1.9%) 21 MRSP (5%), and two MRSS (0.5%) isolates. Concordant strains (genetically identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) were isolated from human subjects and their respective pets in four of 171 (2.9%) households: MRSA from one person/two pets and MRSP from three people/three pets. In seven additional households (4.1%), concordant strains were isolated from only the pets: MRSA in two households and MRSP in five households. There were no demographic or epidemiologic factors statistically associated with either human or animal carriage of MR staphylococci, or with concordant carriage by person-pet or pet-pet pairs. Lack of statistical associations may reflect an underpowered study.Veterinary Dermatology 04/2010; 21(4):400-7. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background - Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus lugdunensis has recently been shown to cause invasive infections of people, which are similar in pathogenic effect to those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Little is known about the pathogenicity of S. lugdunensis in companion animals. Objectives - To compare potential risk factors for infection, body sites affected, and whether cases and controls had been treated with antimicrobial drugs based upon susceptibility test results. Animals - Thirty-three cases of S. lugdunensis infection (25 dogs, six cats and two small mammals) were identified between January 2003 and August 2011. Two Staphylococcus pseudintermedius controls, which were identified by the microbiology laboratory immediately before and after each S. lugdunensis case, were host-species matched to each case. Methods - A retrospective case-control analysis. Results - During the period evaluated, the prevalence of S. lugdunensis infection was 1.3 cases per 10,000 hospital admissions for dogs and 0.95 cases per 10,000 admissions for cats (P = 0.453). In univariate analyses, S. pseudintermedius isolation was significantly associated with skin infections (P < 0.0001), while S. lugdunensis isolation was associated with the respiratory tract (P = 0.03) and other deep tissues (P = 0.005). Cases were less likely than controls to have been treated based upon susceptibility test results (P = 0.02). A conditional logistic regression analysis showed isolation of S. lugdunensis to be associated with recent (≤ 30 days) steroid administration (odds ratio, 17.72; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-132.82; P = 0.005); and in-patient status (odds ratio, 9.67; 95% confidence interval, 2.18-42.88; P = 0.003). Conclusions - These results suggest that S. lugdunensis may cause invasive infections in companion animals, which should be treated with antimicrobials based upon susceptibility tests when available.Veterinary Dermatology 08/2012; · 2.02 Impact Factor
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY,
Copyright © 1999, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Oct. 1999, p. 3353–3356Vol. 37, No. 10
Case of Staphylococcus schleiferi Endocarditis and a Simple Scheme
To Identify Clumping Factor-Positive Staphylococci
MICHAEL J. LEUNG,1* NICHALAS NUTTALL,2MARGARET MAZUR,3TANIA L. TADDEI,1
MICHAEL MCCOMISH,3AND JOHN W. PEARMAN1
Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases1and Division of Internal Medicine,3Royal Perth Hospital, Perth,
Western Australia 6000, and Division of Microbiology, Queensland Health Pathology and Scientific Services,
Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston 4029, and Gold Coast Hospital, Southport 4215, Queensland,2Australia
Received 14 December 1998/Returned for modification 27 February 1999/Accepted 17 July 1999
Staphylococcus schleiferi is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus infrequently reported as a human pathogen.
We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis attributed to this organism, contrast it to another Staphy-
lococcus species that gives similar clumping factor results (S. lugdunensis), and propose a simple, effective
identification scheme for identification of clumping factor-positive staphylococci.
Staphylococcus schleiferi is a recently described (6) coagu-
lase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) that has rarely been re-
ported in human infections. We report what we believe is the
first described case of S. schleiferi endocarditis.
A 78-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of inter-
mittent rigors, night sweats, urinary and fecal incontinence on
one occasion, and urinary retention at presentation. There was
no history of dysuria, frequent urination, or abdominal pain.
He reported an influenza-like illness with rhinorrhea, cough,
myalgia, and vertigo 3 weeks prior to presentation.
His medical history included a Starr-Edwards mitral valve
replacement for myxomatous valve degeneration and coronary
artery bypass grafting to three vessels 4 years previously,
chronic atrial fibrillation, hypertension, and one transient isch-
emic attack. His regular oral medication included digoxin (250
?g per day [q.d.]), amiodarone (100 mg q.d.), warfarin (2 mg
q.d.), and captopril (50 mg/12 h). He was an ex-smoker.
On examination, he had a temperature of 38.5°C, a heart
rate of 90 to 100 in atrial fibrillation, and a blood pressure of
115/74 mm Hg. The prosthetic valve sounds were normal; no
murmurs or added sounds were heard. The rest of the clinical
examination was unremarkable; in particular, there were no
peripheral signs of endocarditis.
Investigation demonstrated a subtherapeutic international
normalized ratio of 1.2 (recommended therapeutic range, 3.0
to 4.5), and urinalysis was positive for blood. Full blood count,
creatinine, electrolyte, and liver function tests were all within
reference ranges. The chest X-ray was reported as normal. The
C-reactive protein level was 150 mg/liter (normal, ?10 mg/
liter). Despite the lack of clinical signs to support a diagnosis of
endocarditis, the occurrence of fevers in a patient with a mitral
valve prosthesis in situ necessitated antimicrobial therapy. He
was given gentamicin (180 mg, stat) and amoxicillin (1 g/6 h)
intravenously (i.v.). A transthoracic echocardiogram did not
demonstrate any vegetations. Blood cultures yielded staphylo-
cocci after 48 h, and flucloxacillin (1 g/4 h given i.v.) was
substituted for the amoxicillin. A transesophageal echocardio-
gram (TOE) showed a small (5 by 3 by 4 mm) vegetation on the
prosthetic mitral valve, with independent mobility and differ-
ent echodensity. Valve function was normal, and there was no
evidence of paravalvular regurgitation or abscess, so conserva-
tive therapy with antimicrobials was continued in lieu of urgent
All four sets of blood cultures (BacT/Alert FAN; Organon
Teknika Corporation, Durham, N.C.) yielded gram-positive
cocci in clusters that were catalase positive, consistent with
staphylococci. Growth on solid media (chocolate agar [Oxoid
GC agar base with growth supplement; Unipath Ltd., Basing-
stoke, United Kingdom] and horse blood agar) produced col-
ony variation consisting of large and small morphotypes; pure
subcultures of both colonial morphologies also produced col-
ony variation with identical biochemical reactions. The clump-
ing factor (coagulase rabbit plasma with EDTA; BBL Becton
Dickinson, Cockeysville, Md.), STAPH-A-LEX latex aggluti-
nation (Trinity Laboratories Inc., Raleigh, N.C.), and tube
coagulase tests were all negative. The clumping factor test
using human plasma was positive. The isolate produced a heat-
stable nuclease when commercial media were used (10). The
RBH-STAPH system that utilizes Rosco diagnostic tablets, the
Murex PYR (1-pyrrolidonyl-?-naphthylamide) reagent (Murex
Biotech Ltd., Dartford, United Kingdom), and antibiotic sus-
ceptibility testing for identification of staphylococci (15)
showed the isolate to be furazolidone susceptible, to be des-
ferrioxamine resistant, to be novobiocin susceptible, to be PYR
positive, to be beta-hemolytic on horse blood agar after 18 h of
incubation at 37°C, to be polymyxin susceptible, to be resistant
to 0.04 U of bacitracin but susceptible to 10 U of bacitracin, to
exhibit a zone of inhibition greater than 30 mm in diameter
(susceptible) around a fosfomycin tablet, to be ornithine de-
carboxylase (ODC) negative, to be alkaline phosphatase
(ALP) positive, and to be urease negative. These results were
consistent with those for S. schleiferi. The ID32 STAPH iden-
tification system (bioMe ´rieux Vitek Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.)
gave an identification profile of 26112640, consistent with
99.99% certainty of identification as S. schleiferi. The Mi-
croScan WalkAway Rapid Pos Breakpoint 1 Panel (Dade-
Behring, West Sacramento, Calif.) gave an identification pro-
file of 040075762000-110, consistent with 99.9% certainty of
identification as S. schleiferi. The Staph-Zym identification
method (Rosco Diagnostica, Taastrup, Denmark) gave an
identification profile of 2171-3, consistent with unequivocal
identification as S. schleiferi, after additional tests recom-
mended by the manufacturer (acetoin production and lactose
and sucrose fermentation) were performed. The isolate was
* Corresponding author. Present address: Western Diagnostic Pa-
thology, 74 McCoy St., Myaree, WA 6154, Australia. Phone: 61-8-9317
0959. Fax: 61-8-9317 1536. E-mail: email@example.com.
not identified by Vitek GPI cards, as S. schleiferi is not in that
A nested PCR using primers specific for the S. aureus ther-
monuclease gene (nuc) and primers for the gene encoding
penicillin-binding protein 2a and conferring methicillin resis-
tance (mecA) (2) produced no amplicons. Susceptibility testing
using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method (14), the Vitek
GPS-IX card (bioMe ´rieux Vitek Inc.), and the MicroScan
WalkAway Rapid Pos Breakpoint 1 Panel (Dade-Behring)
showed the isolate to be susceptible to benzylpenicillin, oxacil-
lin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and
vancomycin. The ?-lactamase tests in the Vitek GPS-IX card
(bioMe ´rieux Vitek Inc.) and the MicroScan panel (Dade-Be-
hring) were negative and were confirmed negative by using
growth at the margin of the zone of inhibition around a 0.5-U
penicillin disk to inoculate a nitrocefin disk (Cefinase; BBL
After confirmation of the isolate’s identity, the patient was
treated with benzylpenicillin (1.8 g/4 h) i.v. and rifampin (300
mg/8 h) orally with cessation of flucloxacillin. Gentamicin (80
mg/8 h) was given i.v. for the first 2 weeks of treatment. He
received benzylpenicillin and rifampin for a total of 6 weeks. A
follow-up TOE showed resolution of the vegetation. The pa-
tient made a complete recovery with a C-reactive protein level
of ?4 mg/liter at follow-up 6 weeks after presentation.
We believe that this case represents the first report of S.
schleiferi endocarditis. Blood samples collected by four sepa-
rate percutaneous venipunctures (eight bottles) all grew the
organism, and TOE evidence was consistent with a vegetation
on the prosthetic mitral valve. These findings fulfilled the Duke
clinical criteria for definite endocarditis (4). A recent paper (9)
suggested that endocarditis due to S. schleiferi has been previ-
ously reported. The references given were two that reported
blood culture isolates of S. schleiferi. Fleurette et al. (5) briefly
mentioned one patient with a single blood culture positive for
S. schleiferi and possible vertebral osteomyelitis; the possibility
of endocarditis was not raised. Jean-Pierre et al. (7) described
a patient with eight blood cultures positive for S. schleiferi;
echocardiography excluded endocarditis, and the probable
source of the organism was extensive venous thrombophlebitis.
At least three other papers have reported the isolation of S.
schleiferi from blood cultures, but none reported associated
endocarditis. Latorre et al. (12) described a patient with three
blood cultures positive for S. schleiferi; again, the possibility of
endocarditis was not mentioned. Ce ´lard et al. (1) described
four pacemaker infections with S. schleiferi, including one in a
patient with six positive blood cultures, without mentioning
endocarditis. Da Costa et al. (3) examined the role of preax-
illary flora in pacemaker infections and described two patients
with S. schleiferi bacteremia resulting from pacemaker infec-
tion. Endocarditis was not listed as a complication in these
A recent paper described biochemical tests that helped to
differentiate S. schleiferi subsp. schleiferi and S. schleiferi subsp.
coagulans (18). Only seven different S. schleiferi strains were
tested, making it difficult to attribute defining characteristics to
individual subspecies, and the isolates were not correlated with
human infections. We did not identify our isolate to the sub-
species level, but it was considered most likely to belong to the
subspecies schleiferi since it was tube coagulase and urease
negative (S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans is tube coagulase and
urease positive) and there is only a single report of S. schleiferi
subsp. coagulans being isolated from humans (18).
Nine S. schleiferi isolates from six distinct geographical re-
gions of Australia were tested for common phenotypic char-
acteristics. This data is presented in Table 1. In summary, all of
TABLE 1. Geographical origins, sites of isolation, and phenotypic characteristics of nine Australian S. schleiferi isolatesa
Far northern Queensland
Far northern Queensland
Sydney, New South Wales
Perth, Western Australia
Perth, Western Australia
aNeg, negative; Pos, positive.
bPYR positive by the Staph-Zym kit.
3354NOTESJ. CLIN. MICROBIOL.
the isolates were tube coagulase negative, clumping factor pos-
itive (using human plasma), heat-stable nuclease positive, ALP
positive, and urease and maltose fermentation negative. Eight
of the nine isolates were PYR positive. All of the isolates could
be definitively identified with the ID32 STAPH (bioMe ´rieux
Vitek Inc.) and RBH-STAPH systems. The Staph-Zym (Rosco
Diagnostica) system gave unequivocal identification of all iso-
lates after additional tests (acetoin production and lactose and
sucrose fermentation) recommended by the manufacturer
S. schleiferi and S. lugdunensis are the only two CoNS species
that frequently give positive clumping factor reactions. We
tested 146 staphylococcal strains with a variety of phenotypic
and biochemical tests (using Rosco diagnostic tablets and the
Murex PYR reagent). Results are presented in Table 2. From
these results, a 4-h screening scheme (Fig. 1) was derived for
the identification of staphylococci that yield positive clumping
factor results (using human plasma). None of 25 strains of S.
haemolyticus gave a weak positive ODC reaction although this
phenomenon has been reported previously (16). Three of 37
isolates of S. epidermidis did yield a weak positive ODC reac-
tion, but all S. epidermidis isolates were clumping factor and
PYR negative. We believe that this screening strategy will
accurately identify S. schleiferi and S. lugdunensis and differen-
tiate them from other tube coagulase-negative staphylococci.
S. lugdunensis has increasingly been reported in endocardi-
tis, characteristically an aggressive form with poor clinical out-
come similar to that of S. aureus rather than the better out-
come generally associated with other CoNS species (13, 17).
The more aggressive endocarditis associated with S. lugdunen-
sis has been attributed to the expression by the organism of
virulence factors similar to those of S. aureus (11). It is of
interest that the same group reported similar virulence factors
in strains of S. schleiferi, yet severe infections caused by S.
schleiferi seem to be underrepresented compared to infections
caused by S. lugdunensis. Moreover, S. schleiferi has not previ-
ously been reported to cause endocarditis. S. schleiferi subsp.
schleiferi is indigenous to carnivores but may be transferred
from carnivore pets to their owners or handlers (8). An earlier
article that reviewed a large number of S. schleiferi isolates
reported that almost all were considered to be part of the skin
flora of some humans (5). One report suggested that the pre-
axillary skin is a preferred site, although prospective cultures
yielded only five strains from 104 patients (1). In a more recent
study, S. schleiferi was isolated from preaxillary skin in a similar
number of patients undergoing pacemaker insertion (3 of 104)
Colony variation was noted in the strain of S. schleiferi in this
report and also in another isolate from a patient at one of our
institutions with an infected pacemaker. The feature of colony
variation has not been previously documented in S. schleiferi
isolates. We reported a similar observation in S. lugdunensis
strains and question whether colony variation is also underre-
ported in S. schleiferi, although all three of the other S. schle-
iferi strains in our previous report did not show colony varia-
S. schleiferi appears to have a propensity to cause infection
associated with implanted foreign material and should be con-
sidered when a CoNS is isolated from implants. We believe
that this is the first report of S. schleiferi endocarditis. Because
S. schleiferi has virulence factors similar to those of S. lug-
dunensis, a CoNS isolated from blood cultures from a patient
with suspected endocarditis needs to be accurately identified.
It is possible that S. schleiferi was previously incorrectly iden-
tified due to overlap of phenotypic characteristics with those of
S. aureus and other CoNS species. Application of a simple
identification method as presented in this report should en-
FIG. 1. Screening scheme for the identification of clumping factor (CF)-
positive staphylococci. Symbols: NEG *, some strains of S. lugdunensis are
clumping factor negative; #, tested by using human plasma; NEG, negative
reaction; ?, positive reaction.
TABLE 2. Key reactions for differentiation of S. schleiferi and S. lugdunensis from other staphylococci
Other CoNS spp.
aNT, not tested.
VOL. 37, 1999NOTES 3355
hance the identification of S. schleiferi. We expect more reports
of human infections caused by S. schleiferi in the future.
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korian, and J. Etienne. 1997. Pacemaker infection caused by Staphylococcus
schleiferi, a member of the human preaxillary flora: four case reports. Clin.
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2. Coombs, G. W., I. D. Kay, J. W. Pearman, and K. J. Christiansen. 1997. The
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tance in staphylococci, abstr. 2292, p. 38. In Programme and abstracts of the
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schleiferi: bacteriological characteristics and susceptibility to antimicrobial
agents. Res. Microbiol. 140:107–118.
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3356NOTESJ. CLIN. MICROBIOL.