Article

Case of Staphylococcus schleiferi endocarditis and a simple scheme to identify clumping factor-positive staphylococci.

Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia 6000, Australia.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Impact Factor: 4.07). 11/1999; 37(10):3353-6.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Staphylococcus schleiferi is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus infrequently reported as a human pathogen. We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis attributed to this organism, contrast it to another Staphylococcus species that gives similar clumping factor results (S. lugdunensis), and propose a simple, effective identification scheme for identification of clumping factor-positive staphylococci.

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    ABSTRACT: To define clinical differences between coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus schleiferi infections in dogs and to identify risk factors for the isolation of oxacillin-resistant S schleiferi. Retrospective case series. 225 dogs (yielding 225 S schleiferi isolates). Information obtained from affected dogs' medical records included isolate body site source, antimicrobial treatments, and primary disease. For each dog, the S schleiferi isolate was characterized and antimicrobial susceptibility data were recorded. Risk factors for infection based on coagulase status and for S schleiferi oxacillin resistance were investigated. Allergic dermatitis was the most common underlying disease (111/225 dogs). Ears (102 [45%]) and skin (95 [42%]) were sources of most of the 225 isolates. Isolate coagulase status was not significantly associated with any patient-level factors. Of the 225 isolates, 129 (57%) were oxacillin resistant. Coagulase-negative isolates were more likely to be oxacillin resistant than were coagulase-positive isolates (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.0). Administration of penicillin-based or first-generation cephalosporin drugs (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.9) and third-generation cephalosporins (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 12.3) within 30 days prior to culture were risk factors for oxacillin resistance. Results suggested that coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive S schleiferi are potential pathogens in dogs and are often oxacillin resistant. Recent patient treatments with penicillin or cephalosporin were risk factors for oxacillin resistance. In clinical cases, full speciation of all Staphylococcus isolates should be performed and microbial treatments should be selected on the basis of results of susceptibility testing.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been shown that people and pets can harbour identical strains of meticillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci when they share an environment. Veterinary dermatology practitioners are a professional group with a high incidence of exposure to animals infected by Staphylococcus spp. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of carriage of MR Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MR S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and MR S. schleiferi (MRSS) by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their personal pets. A swab technique and selective media were used to screen 171 veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets (258 dogs and 160 cats). Samples were shipped by over-night carrier. Human subjects completed a 22-question survey of demographic and epidemiologic data relevant to staphylococcal transmission. The 171 human-source samples yielded six MRSA (3.5%), nine MRSP (5.3%) and four MRSS (2.3%) isolates, while 418 animal-source samples yielded eight MRSA (1.9%) 21 MRSP (5%), and two MRSS (0.5%) isolates. Concordant strains (genetically identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) were isolated from human subjects and their respective pets in four of 171 (2.9%) households: MRSA from one person/two pets and MRSP from three people/three pets. In seven additional households (4.1%), concordant strains were isolated from only the pets: MRSA in two households and MRSP in five households. There were no demographic or epidemiologic factors statistically associated with either human or animal carriage of MR staphylococci, or with concordant carriage by person-pet or pet-pet pairs. Lack of statistical associations may reflect an underpowered study.
    Veterinary Dermatology 04/2010; 21(4):400-7. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background -  Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus lugdunensis has recently been shown to cause invasive infections of people, which are similar in pathogenic effect to those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Little is known about the pathogenicity of S. lugdunensis in companion animals. Objectives -  To compare potential risk factors for infection, body sites affected, and whether cases and controls had been treated with antimicrobial drugs based upon susceptibility test results. Animals -  Thirty-three cases of S. lugdunensis infection (25 dogs, six cats and two small mammals) were identified between January 2003 and August 2011. Two Staphylococcus pseudintermedius controls, which were identified by the microbiology laboratory immediately before and after each S. lugdunensis case, were host-species matched to each case. Methods -  A retrospective case-control analysis. Results -  During the period evaluated, the prevalence of S. lugdunensis infection was 1.3 cases per 10,000 hospital admissions for dogs and 0.95 cases per 10,000 admissions for cats (P = 0.453). In univariate analyses, S. pseudintermedius isolation was significantly associated with skin infections (P < 0.0001), while S. lugdunensis isolation was associated with the respiratory tract (P = 0.03) and other deep tissues (P = 0.005). Cases were less likely than controls to have been treated based upon susceptibility test results (P = 0.02). A conditional logistic regression analysis showed isolation of S. lugdunensis to be associated with recent (≤ 30 days) steroid administration (odds ratio, 17.72; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-132.82; P = 0.005); and in-patient status (odds ratio, 9.67; 95% confidence interval, 2.18-42.88; P = 0.003). Conclusions -  These results suggest that S. lugdunensis may cause invasive infections in companion animals, which should be treated with antimicrobials based upon susceptibility tests when available.
    Veterinary Dermatology 08/2012; · 2.02 Impact Factor

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M J Leung