Murine progesterone receptor expression in proliferating mammary epithelial cells during normal pubertal development and adult estrous cycle. Association with eralpha and erbeta status.
ABSTRACT The ovarian steroids estrogen and progesterone are important in directing the normal growth and development of the mouse mammary gland. Previously, we have demonstrated that the majority of proliferating mammary epithelial cells do not express estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha). In this study we examined the relationship between progesterone receptor (PR) expression and proliferation in mammary epithelial cells using simultaneous immunohistochemistry for progesterone receptor (PR) and tritiated thymidine [(3)H]-Tdr) autoradiography. Results showed that the majority (>80%) of mammary epithelial cells labeled with [(3)H]-Tdr were PR-positive in the terminal end buds (TEBs) of pubertal mice and the ducts of pubertal and adult mice. Whereas the majority of mammary epithelial cells were also PR-positive, the basal cell population, which comprises the minority of mammary epithelial cells in the mammary ducts, was predominantly PR-negative. Nevertheless, the PR-positive phenotype remained the major proliferating cell type in the basal population. These findings suggest that the progesterone signaling pathway is involved in the proliferation of basal cell populations, potentially directing formation of tertiary side branching during pubertal development and alveolar bud formation in adult glands. A proportion of the basal cells exhibited weak expression of ERbeta, suggesting that the role of ERbeta in mediating normal estrogen-induced responses should be further studied. (J Histochem Cytochem: 47:1323-1330, 1999)
Article: Historical perspectives of prolactin and growth hormone as mammogens, lactogens and galactagogues--agog for the future![show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Around 80 years ago researchers first established that the pituitary gland regulates mammary gland function as demonstrated by the ability of its extracts to promote both mammogenesis and lactogenesis in animal models. Little did they realize that in fact two hormones, prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH), were contributing to these effects. By the mid 1930s PRL had been purified as a distinct lactogen, while the galactopoietic effect of GH was confirmed after its purification in the 1940s. Interest in these hormones initially centered about their potential for increasing milk production, while in the latter half of the twentieth century it became obvious that these hormones also had the potential to influence mammary cancer development. During the past 50 years large strides have been made into understanding how these hormones signal to, and within, cells of the mammary gland, paralleling rapid developments in the fields of cellular and molecular biology. In compiling this review we have summarized the progress that has been made to date regarding roles for these hormones in the mammary gland, with a goal of ensuring that some of the seminal literature is not diluted or forgotten. In doing so it is clear that there are lessons to be learned from past experiences, where new methods and technologies will continue to present exciting new opportunities to revisit lingering questions regarding these fascinating hormones and this fascinating organ.Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 04/2008; 13(1):3-11. · 6.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Unique developmental features during puberty, pregnancy, lactation and post-lactation make the mammary gland a prime object to explore genetic circuits that control the specification, proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of cells. Steroids and simple peptide hormones initiate and carry out complex developmental programmes, and reverse genetics has been used to define the underlying mechanistic connections.Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 10/2005; 6(9):715-25. · 39.12 Impact Factor
Article: Selective segregation of DNA strands persists in long-label-retaining mammary cells during pregnancy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During pregnancy the mammary epithelial compartment undergoes extreme proliferation and differentiation, facilitated by stem/progenitor cells. Mouse mammary epithelium in nonpregnant mice contains long label-retaining epithelial cells (LREC) that divide asymmetrically and retain their template DNA strands. The role of LREC during alveogenesis has not been determined. We performed immunohistochemistry and autoradiography on murine mammary glands that had been labeled with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (5BrdU) during allometric ductal growth to investigate the co-expression of DNA label retention and estrogen receptor-alpha or progesterone receptor during pregnancy. A second DNA label ([3H]-thymidine) was administered during pregnancy to identify label-retaining cells (LRC), which subsequently enter the cell cycle. Use of this methodology allowed us to investigate the co-localization of 5BrdU with smooth muscle actin, CD31, cytokeratin, and desmin in periductal or peri-acinar LRC in mammary tissue from pregnant mice subsequent to a long chase period in order to identify LRC. Estrogen receptor-alpha positive and progesterone receptor positive cells represented approximately 30% to 40% of the LREC, which is under 1.0% of the epithelial subpopulation. Pregnancy altered the percentage of LREC expressing estrogen receptor-alpha. LRC situated in periductal or peri-acinar positions throughout the gland do not express epithelial, endothelial, or myoepithelial markers, and these undefined LRCs persist throughout pregnancy. Additionally, new cycling LREC ([3H]-thymidine retaining) appear during alveologenesis, and LRC found in other tissue types (for example, endothelium and nerve) within the mammary fat pad become double labeled during pregnancy, which indicates that they may also divide asymmetrically. Our findings support the premise that there is a subpopulation of LREC in the mouse mammary gland that persists during alveologenesis. These cells react to hormonal cues during pregnancy and enter the cell cycle while continuing to retain, selectively, their original template DNA. In addition, nonepithelial LRC are found in periductal or peri-acinar positions. These LRC also enter the cell cycle during pregnancy. During alveologenesis, newly created label-retaining ([3H]-thymidine) epithelial cells appear within the expanding alveoli and continue to cycle and retain their original template DNA ([3H]-thymidine) strands, as determined by a second pulse of 5BrdU.Breast cancer research: BCR 10/2008; 10(5):R90. · 5.24 Impact Factor