Immunological alterations in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder.
ABSTRACT Some recent findings suggest the involvement of autoimmune mechanisms in childhood onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), on the basis of a parallel drawn with Sydenham's chorea, a manifestation of rheumatic fever. A monoclonal antibody called D8/D17 characterizing a B-lymphocyte antigen, present in almost all patients with rheumatic fever, has been found also in children affected by OCD, Tourette syndrome, and chronic tics to a greater degree than in healthy control subjects. The few observations of disturbances of some immunologic parameters in adult OCD patients, prompted the authors to investigate and compare subsets of peripheral immunological cells for differences in adult patients with OCD and healthy control subjects.
Twenty patients suffering from OCD, with no comorbidity for other psychiatric disorders, were compared with a similar group of healthy control subjects. The immune subsets were measured by flow cytometry.
The CD8+ lymphocytes were significantly increased and CD4+ lymphocytes significantly decreased in OCD patients, while the other cells did not differ between the two groups. No correlation was found between immunologic and clinical parameters.
These data indicate that patients with adult OCD showed increased CD8+, i.e., suppressor T lymphocytes, and decreased CD4+, which identify helper T lymphocytes, as compared with a similar group of healthy control subjects. The findings appear peculiar to patients with OCD and are suggestive of an immunologic imbalance, which might be related to the stress deriving from the frustrating situation determined by the disorder itself.
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ABSTRACT: This study examines cerebrospinal fluid from patients with three neuropsychiatric diseases of childhood for the presence and levels of several cytokines relevant to cell-mediated (type 1) and humoral (type 2) immunity. The patient groups include childhood-onset schizophrenia (n = 22), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (n = 24), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 42). The cytokines examined include IL-2, IFN-gamma, TNF-beta/LT, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. Patients with OCD had a preponderance of type 1 cytokines. IL-4 was detectable only in samples from patients with schizophrenia. IL-10 was rarely detected and never in patients with OCD. Few patients with schizophrenia had detectable amounts of IFN-gamma in CSFL. We conclude that there is a relative skewing of CSFL profiles toward type 1 cytokines in patients with OCD, whereas in schizophrenia the relative preponderance is toward type 2 mediators. Patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder exhibited profiles intermediate between OCD and schizophrenia. We infer that cell-mediated immunity may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of OCD, whereas a relative lack of cell-mediated immunity and involvement of humoral immunity may be present in schizophrenia. These data provide a rationale for immune-based strategies of study and therapeutics in childhood neuropsychiatric disease.The Journal of Immunology 10/1997; 159(6):2994-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1.1. This paper reviews recent findings on cellular and humoral immunity and inflammatory markers in depression.2.2. It is shown that major depression may be accompanied by systemic immune activation or an inflammatory response with involvement of phagocytic (monocytes, neutrophils) cells, T cell activation, B cell proliferation, an “acute” phase response with increased plasma levels of positive and decreased levels of negative acute phase proteins, higher autoantibody (antinuclear, antiphospholipid) titers, increased prostaglandin secretion, disorders in exopeptidase enzymes, such as dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and increased production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells.3.3. It is hypothesized that increased monocytic production of interleukins (Il-1β and Il-6) in severe depression may constitute key phenomena underlying the various aspects of the immune and “acute” phase response, while contributing to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalaxis hyperactivity, disorders in serotonin metabolism, and to the vegetative symptoms (i.e. the sickness behavior) of severe depression.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 02/1995; · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were examined in a series of studies utilizing psychobiological approaches. Putative biological markers previously reported in depression were studied in this disorder and revealed that on some measures [Dexamethasone Suppression Test and rapid eye movement (REM) latency on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG)], OCD patients resemble those with major depressive disorder (MDD), whereas on others [REM density, platelet serotonin uptake, probably platelet 3H-imipramine binding, and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)] they do not. The relationship between OCD and MDD was further explored in a double-blind, randomized crossover study designed to compare the antiobsessional effects of two tricyclic antidepressants, clomipramine (CMI) and desipramine (DMI), in a nondepressed cohort of OCD patients. CMI was found to have significant antiobsessional effects in this group, whereas in the same patients, DMI lacked therapeutic effects. These results suggest that not all antidepressants are antiobsessive and that some property of CMI, such as its potent serotonergic effects, may be of pathophysiological relevance for OCD. The role of serotonin in this disorder was then tested using the pharmacological challenge strategy. A novel serotonin postsynaptic receptor (5HT-1) agonist, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), was administered orally (0.5 mg/kg) under double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions to OCD patients and controls. In addition, a serotonergic receptor antagonist, metergoline (4 mg), was given to a subset of OCD patients. Relative to healthy volunteers, the OCD patients became significantly more anxious, depressed, and dysphoric after m-CPP administration. Moreover, in the OCD patients, obsessive-compulsive symptoms increased markedly after m-CPP and decreased significantly following metergoline administration. These results demonstrate that agents that bind to the 5HT-1 receptor can acutely affect the symptoms of OCD patients. The striking behavioral effects of these direct postsynaptic receptor ligands and the relative specificity of clomipramine as an antiobsessional agent suggest that serotonergic neurons may play a role in the pathophysiology, as well as mediating the pharmacological reduction, of obsessional symptoms.Biological Psychiatry 07/1987; 22(6):667-87. · 9.25 Impact Factor