Immunological alterations in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder.
ABSTRACT Some recent findings suggest the involvement of autoimmune mechanisms in childhood onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), on the basis of a parallel drawn with Sydenham's chorea, a manifestation of rheumatic fever. A monoclonal antibody called D8/D17 characterizing a B-lymphocyte antigen, present in almost all patients with rheumatic fever, has been found also in children affected by OCD, Tourette syndrome, and chronic tics to a greater degree than in healthy control subjects. The few observations of disturbances of some immunologic parameters in adult OCD patients, prompted the authors to investigate and compare subsets of peripheral immunological cells for differences in adult patients with OCD and healthy control subjects.
Twenty patients suffering from OCD, with no comorbidity for other psychiatric disorders, were compared with a similar group of healthy control subjects. The immune subsets were measured by flow cytometry.
The CD8+ lymphocytes were significantly increased and CD4+ lymphocytes significantly decreased in OCD patients, while the other cells did not differ between the two groups. No correlation was found between immunologic and clinical parameters.
These data indicate that patients with adult OCD showed increased CD8+, i.e., suppressor T lymphocytes, and decreased CD4+, which identify helper T lymphocytes, as compared with a similar group of healthy control subjects. The findings appear peculiar to patients with OCD and are suggestive of an immunologic imbalance, which might be related to the stress deriving from the frustrating situation determined by the disorder itself.
SourceAvailable from: Fulvio D'Acquisto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An imbalanced immune system has long been known to influence a variety of mood disorders including anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and depression. In this study, we sought to model the impact of an immunocompromised state on these emotional behaviors using RAG-1(-/-) mice, which lack T and B cells. We also investigated the relative contribution of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells to these manifestations using RAG-1(-/-)/OT-II and RAG-1(-/-)/OT-I transgenic mice, respectively. Our results show that RAG-1(-/-) mice present a significant increase in digging and marble-burying activities compared with wild-type mice. Surprisingly, these anxiety-like behaviors were significantly reverted in RAG-1(-/-)/OT-II but not RAG-1(-/-)/OT-I transgenic mice. Immunodepletion experiments with anti-CD4 or anti-CD8 in C57/BL6 mice or repopulation studies in RAG-1(-/-) mice did not reproduce these findings. Microarray analysis of the brain of RAG-1(-/-) and RAG-1(-/-)/OT-II mice revealed a significantly different gene fingerprint, with the latter being more similar to wild-type mice than the former. Further analysis revealed nine main signaling pathways as being significantly modulated in RAG-1(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, these results suggest that life-long rather than transient immunodeficient conditions influence the emotional behaviors in mice. Most interestingly, these effects seem to correlate with a specific absence of CD4(+) rather than CD8(+) T cells. Validation of these findings in man might provide new clues on the mechanism by which early life immune modulation might impact mood response in adults and provide a further link between immune and emotional well-being.07/2013; 3:e280. DOI:10.1038/tp.2013.54
Medicina Clínica 08/2013; 114(17):665–668. DOI:10.1016/S0025-7753(00)71395-9 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The etiopathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains elusive. Clinical observation of the elevated frequency of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with rheumatic fever, a post-streptococcal autoimmune disease, prompted the study of immune parameters in OCD. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies have been described in a subset of OCD patients. The assessment of circulating cytokines and immune cells confirmed unequivocal changes in at least some patients, although it is difficult to establish a particular immune profile in OCD. Several factors, including the use of psychotropic drugs and the presence of comorbid conditions, seem to influence these immune parameters. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.NeuroImmunoModulation 01/2014; 21(2-3):152-8. DOI:10.1159/000356554 · 1.84 Impact Factor