Genetic alterations of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1 in human brain metastases.
ABSTRACT The high mutation rate in advanced brain tumors, recent functional studies, and the high frequency of mutations in prostate metastases all strongly suggest that PTEN/MMAC1 alterations are involved in the formation of metastases. We searched for genetic alterations in the PTEN/MMAC1 gene in 56 consecutive brain metastases from various primary tumors by loss of heterozygosity (LOH), direct sequence analysis, and differential PCR analysis. The highest LOH rates were detected in metastases deriving from lung (67%) and breast (64%) cancers. Three (25%) of the eight detected inactivating mutations (one nonsense mutation, one splice-site mutation, one 11-bp deletion, and five homozygous deletions) were found in metastases originating from 12 different lung carcinomas, suggesting that PTEN/MMAC1 alterations may play a role in the progression of this tumor. With the exception of lung carcinomas, our findings indicate that genetic abnormalities of the PTENM/MMAC1 gene are only involved in a relatively small subset of brain metastases. However, the discrepancy between the high overall LOH rate (50%) and the low frequency of PTEN/MMAC1 mutation detection rate (14%) suggests the presence of one or more additional tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 10q.
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ABSTRACT: Brain metastases (BM) are the most common intracranial tumors and their incidence is increasing. Untreated brain metastases are associated with a poor prognosis and a poor performance status. Metastasis development involves the migration of a cancer cell from the bulk tumor into the surrounding tissue, extravasation from the blood into tissue elsewhere in the body, and formation of a secondary tumor. In the recent past, important results have been obtained in the management of patients affected by BM, using surgery, radiation therapy, or both. Conventional chemotherapies have generally produced disappointing results, possibly due to their limited ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. The advent of new technologies has led to the discovery of novel molecules and pathways that have better depicted the metastatic process. Targeted therapies such as bevacizumab, erlotinib, gefitinib, sunitinib and sorafenib, are all licensed and have demonstrated improved survival in patients with metastatic disease. In this review, we will report current data on targeted therapies. A brief review about brain metastatic process will be also presented.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(1):2135-74. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gain-of-function mutations in oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes (TSG) lead to cancer. In most human cancers, these mutations occur in somatic tissues. However, hereditary forms of cancer exist for which individuals are heterozygous for a germline mutation in a TSG locus at birth. The second allele is frequently inactivated by gene deletion, point mutation, or promoter methylation in classical TSGs that meet Knudson's two-hit hypothesis. Conversely, the second allele remains as wild-type, even in tumors in which the gene is haplo-insufficient for tumor suppression. This article highlights the importance of PTEN, APC, and other tumor suppressors for counteracting aberrant PI3K, β-catenin, and other oncogenic signaling pathways. We discuss the use of gene-engineered mouse models (GEMM) of human cancer focusing on Pten and Apc knockout mice that recapitulate key genetic events involved in initiation and progression of human neoplasia. Finally, the therapeutic potential of targeting these tumor suppressor and oncogene signaling networks is discussed.Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 01/2013; 7:103-122.
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ABSTRACT: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to successful cancer treatment. Therefore, in vitro models are necessary for the investigation of the phenotypic changes provoked by cytotoxic agents and more importantly for preclinical testing of new anticancer drugs. We analyzed chromosomal, numerical, and structural changes after development of MDR, alterations in p53 and PTEN, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mdr1 gene and corresponding protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in three human MDR cancer cell lines: non-small cell lung carcinoma NCI-H460/R, colorectal carcinoma DLD1-TxR, and glioma U87-TxR. In addition, we explored how these molecular and phenotypic alterations influence the anticancer effect of new drugs. Cytogenetic analysis showed polyploidy reduction after development of MDR in U87-TxR. Losses of 6q in all resistant cancer cell lines and inactivation of p53 in U87-TxR and PTEN in DLD1-TxR were also revealed. Overexpression of P-gp was observed in all MDR cancer cell lines. We evaluated the anticancer activities and MDR reversal potential of Akt inhibitor GSK690693, Ras inhibitor Tipifarnib, and two P-gp inhibitors (jatrophane diterpenoids). Their effects vary due to the cell-type differences, existence of MDR phenotype, presence of mdr1 SNP, and tumor suppressors' alterations. Tipifarnib and jatrophane diterpenoids significantly sensitized MDR cancer cells to paclitaxel. In conclusion, investigated MDR cancer cells obtained new molecular and cytogenetic characteristics that may serve as potential clinical prognostic markers. In addition, these MDR cancer cell lines present a valuable model for preclinical evaluation of new anticancer agents.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 08/2013; · 2.80 Impact Factor