The high mutation rate in advanced brain tumors, recent functional studies, and the high frequency of mutations in prostate metastases all strongly suggest that PTEN/MMAC1 alterations are involved in the formation of metastases. We searched for genetic alterations in the PTEN/MMAC1 gene in 56 consecutive brain metastases from various primary tumors by loss of heterozygosity (LOH), direct sequence analysis, and differential PCR analysis. The highest LOH rates were detected in metastases deriving from lung (67%) and breast (64%) cancers. Three (25%) of the eight detected inactivating mutations (one nonsense mutation, one splice-site mutation, one 11-bp deletion, and five homozygous deletions) were found in metastases originating from 12 different lung carcinomas, suggesting that PTEN/MMAC1 alterations may play a role in the progression of this tumor. With the exception of lung carcinomas, our findings indicate that genetic abnormalities of the PTENM/MMAC1 gene are only involved in a relatively small subset of brain metastases. However, the discrepancy between the high overall LOH rate (50%) and the low frequency of PTEN/MMAC1 mutation detection rate (14%) suggests the presence of one or more additional tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 10q.
"One of the most frequently observed genetic alterations in advanced human cancers as detected by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) assays have been found in chromosome 10q23. Extensive studies on this candidate tumor suppressor gene, designated as PTEN, have been validated in a variety of tumors.5 Frequent genetic inactivation of PTEN as detected by LOH occurs in glioblastoma, endometrial cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer, and reduced expression has been observed in many other tumor types such as melanoma,6 lung,7,8 and breast cancer.9 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gain-of-function mutations in oncogenes and loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes (TSG) lead to cancer. In most human cancers, these mutations occur in somatic tissues. However, hereditary forms of cancer exist for which individuals are heterozygous for a germline mutation in a TSG locus at birth. The second allele is frequently inactivated by gene deletion, point mutation, or promoter methylation in classical TSGs that meet Knudson's two-hit hypothesis. Conversely, the second allele remains as wild-type, even in tumors in which the gene is haplo-insufficient for tumor suppression. This article highlights the importance of PTEN, APC, and other tumor suppressors for counteracting aberrant PI3K, β-catenin, and other oncogenic signaling pathways. We discuss the use of gene-engineered mouse models (GEMM) of human cancer focusing on Pten and Apc knockout mice that recapitulate key genetic events involved in initiation and progression of human neoplasia. Finally, the therapeutic potential of targeting these tumor suppressor and oncogene signaling networks is discussed.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 06/2013; 7:103-122. DOI:10.4137/CMO.S10358
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tumour suppressor gene PTEN, localized to 10q23.3, is the susceptibility gene for Cowden syndrome (CS) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba (BRR) syndrome, two hamartoma syndromes with an increased risk of breast and thyroid tumours. Somatic mutations have been found in a variety of human tumours. Functional studies have revealed that PTEN plays a fundamental role in cellular growth, death, adhesion and migration. RNA in situ hybridization using the pten coding region in mouse embryos showed ubiquitous transcription, providing evidence that pten could play a versatile role throughout murine development. Nothing is known regarding the pattern of PTEN expression during human development. Here, we present the pattern of PTEN expression during human development using a specific monoclonal antibody and examine the relationship of the temporal and spatial expression pattern to the clinical manifestations of CS and BRR, the somatic genetic data in sporadic cancers, the murine knockout models and the RNA expression data in mouse embryos. We observed mainly high-level PTEN expression in tissues (e.g. skin, thyroid and central nervous system) known to be involved in CS and BRR. In addition, we identified tissues (e.g. peripheral nervous system, autonomomic nervous system and upper gastrointestinal tract) with high PTEN expression not commonly known to play a role in these syndromes nor in sporadic tumorigenesis in those organs. This knowledge may help in identifying roles for PTEN which, as of today, are unknown or even unsuspected.
Human Molecular Genetics 08/2000; 9(11):1633-9. · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a promising phytochemical agent in chemoprevention of breast cancer. Our present study is the first description of I3C that significantly inhibits the cell adhesion, spreading and invasion associated with an up-regulation of PTEN (a tumor suppressor gene) and E-cadherin (a regulator of cell-cell adhesion) expression in T47-D human breast cancer cells. Therefore, I3C exhibits anti-cancer activities by suppressing breast tumor cell growth and metastatic spread. Metastatic breast cancer is a devastating problem, clinical application of I3C as a potent chemopreventive agent may be helpful in limiting breast cancer invasion and metastasis.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 10/2000; 63(2):147-52. DOI:10.1023/A:1006495824158 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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