Gender-influenced obesity QTLs identified in a cross involving the KK type II diabetes-prone mouse strain.
ABSTRACT The inheritance of adiposity and related traits has been investigated in the obese, diabetes-prone KK/HlLt (KK) and the lean, normoglycemic C57BL/6J (B6) mouse strains, their F(1) hybrids, and a large intercross generation. Adiposity index (AI) was defined as the sum of four fat depot weights divided by body weight. Both male and female KK mice were obese, but AI values averaged twofold higher in females than in males. In contrast, B6 females were slightly more lean than males. A genome-wide search revealed several qualitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting AI. The proximal region of Chromosome (Chr) 9 has a large effect on AI, with a much stronger effect in females (lod = 6.3) than in males (lod = 2.7). The data for females fit a model in which a dominant allele from KK increases AI by 30%, with the lod score peak falling between markers D9Mit66 and D9Mit328. This QTL has large effects on inguinal and mesenteric fat pad weights, with smaller effects on gonadal and retroperitoneal fat pads. The region of Chr 9 containing this QTL has extensive homology to human Chr 11q. An X-linked QTL affecting AI was evident in males (lod = 3.77), but not females (lod = 0.7). Exclusion of mesenteric fat from male AI resulted in an increased lod score (lod = 5.0) at 8 cM distal to DXMit166. A suggestive AI QTL (lod = 4.2), differentially affecting males, was localized to Chr 18 near the glucocorticoid receptor locus. A region of Chr 7 had a strong effect on body weight (lod = 6.9), a significant effect on inguinal fat% (lod = 4.4), and a suggestive effect on AI in females (lod = 4.1). Plasma leptin levels were associated with genotypes on Chr 9 (lod = 5.9) and Chr 7 (lod = 4.2). A region of Chr 1 had a suggestive effect on fasted blood glucose (lod = 3.6).
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ABSTRACT: Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a common genetic lipid disorder in Western societies. In a recent report (Dallinga-Thie, G.M., X.D. Bu, M. van Linde-Sibenius Trip, J.I. Rotter, A.J. Lusis, and T.W.A. de Bruin. J. Lipid Res., 1996, 36:136-147) we have studied three restriction enzyme polymorphisms: XmnI, and MspI sites 5' of the apo AI gene and SstI site in the 3' untranslated region of exon 4 of the apo CIII gene in 18 FCH pedigrees, including 18 probands, 178 hyperlipidemic relatives, 210 normolipidemic relatives, and 176 spouses. DNA variations in the apo AI-CIII-AIV gene cluster had a modifying effect on plasma triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein CIII levels. In this study, combinations of haplotypes were analyzed to further characterize their interactions and effect on the expression of severe hyperlipidemia in FCH subjects. A specific combination of haplotypes with one chromosome carrying the X1M1S2 (1-1-2) haplotype and the other the X2M2S1 haplotype (2-2-1) was significantly more frequent in hyperlipidemic relatives (6%) than in normolipidemic relatives (3%) and spouses (0.5%). Associated with this combination of haplotypes were significantly elevated plasma cholesterol (P < 0.0001), triglycerides (P < 0.0001), and apo CIII (P < 0.001) levels when compared to the wild type combination of haplotypes 1-1-1/1-1-1. The only spouse with this specific combination of haplotypes showed a severe hyperlipidemic phenotype, similar to FCH. Furthermore, nonparametric sibpair linkage analysis revealed significant linkage between these markers in the gene cluster and the FCH phenotype (MspI P = 0.0088, SstI P = 0.044, and XMS haplotype P = 0.037). The present findings confirm that the apo AI-CIII-IV gene cluster contributes to the FCH phenotype, but this contribution is genetically complex. An epistatic interaction between different haplotypes of the gene cluster was demonstrated. The S2 allele on one haplotype was synergistic to the X2M2 allele on the other haplotype in its hyperlipidemic effect. Therefore, two different susceptibility loci exist in the gene cluster, demonstrating the paradigm of complex genetic contribution to FCH.Journal of Clinical Investigation 04/1997; 99(5):953-61. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The associations of body size with age, race, sex, and education in young adults were examined in 5,115 black and white, men and women ages 18-30 years. Black women were more obese than white women with greater mean levels of body mass index (25.8 vs 23.1 kg/m2), subscapular skinfold thickness (19.9 vs 15.2 mm), and waist girth (76.7 vs 72.0 cm), all P less than 0.0001. Black women were more likely to exceed 20% of ideal body weights (black women 23.7%, white women 9.1%, P less than 0.0001). No similar differences were found in men. Associations of measures of body size with age and education differed among race/sex groups. Body mass index and skinfolds increased with age among white and black men and black women, but not among white women. The association of education with obesity was negative among white women and positive among black men with no significant association noted among white men and black women. These data show a complex relationship between age, sex, race, education, and obesity in young adulthood.Preventive Medicine 08/1990; 19(4):476-88. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The genetic basis of body weight in the mouse was investigated by measuring frequency changes of microsatellite marker alleles in lines divergently selected for body weight from a base population of a cross between two inbred strains. In several regions of the genome, sharp peaks of frequency change at linked markers were detected, which suggested the presence of single genes of moderate effect, although in several other regions, significant frequency changes occurred over large portions of chromosomes. A method based on maximum likelihood was used to infer effects and map positions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) based on genotype frequencies at one or more marker loci. Eleven QTLs with effects in the range 0.17-0.28 phenotypic standard deviations were detected; but under an additive model, these did not fully account for the observed selection response. Tests for the presence of more than one QTL in regions where there were large changes of marker allele frequency were mostly inconclusive.Genetics 02/1996; 142(1):227-35. · 4.39 Impact Factor