Acid-base properties and solubility of pindolol, diazepam and chlordiazepoxide in SDS micelles
ABSTRACT The effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on the acid-base properties and on the solubility of a beta-blocker (pindolol) and of two benzodiazepines (diazepam and chlordiazepoxide) has been assessed. The study was performed by potentiometric and spectrophotometric determinations of the acidity constants and by spectrophotometric evaluation of the solubilities of the pharmaceutical drugs in aqueous solution and in solutions to which was added SDS with concentrations below and above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), at 25 degrees C and at an ionic strength 0.1 M (NaCl). The effect of the organized assemblies on the pKa values was quantified by the application of two theoretical models that differ in the inclusion of ionic exchange between positively charged species in solution. These models have allowed the determination of the binding constants for drug/micelle and yielded values in good agreement with those obtained by the solubility method, and in addition provide a more detailed picture of the effect of drug charge on its partition. The results can be taken to evidence different interaction modes of the drugs with the SDS micelles.
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ABSTRACT: Sumario: Acute toxicology of components of vegetation smoke ( Formaldehyde and formic acid. Acrolein. Ozone. Free radicals. Health impact of particulate matter. Collateral issues. Research needs) -- Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants (Study animals: soricidae, cricetidae, muridae, other families. Biomonitoring of specific groups of contaminants: inorganics contaminants, radionuclides, organic contaminants. Evaluation of study species as monitors: cadmium, copper, fluorine, lead, mercury, zinc, radionuclides, organic contaminants, relationship of trophic level to biomonitoring suitability, limitations to biomonitoring, advantages of biomonitoring) Continuation of Residue Reviews Contiene: Volume 119: Acute toxicology of components of vegetation smoke / Frank N. Dost. Small mammals as monitors of environmental contaminants / Sylvia S. Talmage and Barbara T. Walton
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ABSTRACT: Interactions of the herbicide sulfentrazone with the cationic surfactants octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA), hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA), and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHDA) have been studied for the design of slow-release formulations based on sulfentrazone adsorbed on a micelle-montmorillonite complex. Adsorbed amounts of sulfentrazone on ODTMA- and BDMHDA-montmorillonite complexes were 99.2-99.8% of that added, and desorption of herbicide in water during 24 h was low. After 10 washings in funnels with soil, only 2.6% of herbicide was released from ODTMA-montmorillonite formulations versus 100% release from the commercial formulation. The strong binding of sulfentrazone to micelles was confirmed by pH and spectroscopic measurements and was explained by the formation of ionic pairs between cationic surfactant and anionic herbicide. The ODTMA-clay and commercial formulations of sulfentrazone yield almost complete and 40% growth inhibition of green foxtail, respectively, at 700 g of active ingredient/ha. Hence, the slow release from micelle-clay formulations of sulfentrazone promotes its biological activity and reduces environmental contamination.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2003; 51(11):3410-4. DOI:10.1021/jf030002d · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spectrofluorimetric characteristics of pindolol have been investigated with the aim of using this technique for analytical determinations. Other monosubstituted indole derivatives, 4-methoxy and 5-methoxyindole, have been also studied for comparative purposes. Corrected excitation and emission wavelengths in different solvents are reported and the effect of solvent on the Stokes shifts of these compounds has been analysed using the Lippert equation. In addition, the Stokes shift of pindolol has been determined in dioxan–water solvent mixtures and the presence of specific solvent effects is discussed. The fluorescence of pindolol is pH dependent, the quantum yields determined in water are lower than those in other solvents. With respect to the sensitivity, it has been found that the detection limits in aqueous solutions are improved in the presence of β and methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Finally, a fluorimetric analysis of the interaction between pindolol and different cyclodextrins has been carried out in order to determine the apparent stability constants of the complexes and the thermodynamic parameters associated to complexation.Talanta 07/2003; 60:477-482. DOI:10.1016/S0039-9140(03)00077-8 · 3.51 Impact Factor