Molecular and genetic targets in early detection.
ABSTRACT Recent research has revealed the existence of specific mutations in cancer. These mutations are being investigated as targets to find subjects at high risk for cancer, to detect early cancer, to detect the early recurrence of established cancer, and to find micrometastasis. These mutations are reviewed for the major anatomic sites. Some of the clinical issues related to the application of these mutations and the limitations of using molecular targets are also considered. Current methods for determining the risk of cancer are reviewed. Risk assessment is essential for defining cohorts for chemoprevention and other interventions. The concept of using surrogate anatomic and functional sites for estimating risk is introduced. Finally, the increasing complexity of molecular genetic analysis and the biologic heterogeneity of cancer are discussed in relation to early detection.
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ABSTRACT: Saliva samples from certain disease patients harbor a wide spectrum of proteins, mRNAs, DNAs and other molecules that may be associated with the disease phenotype. If successfully discovered and validated, these informative molecules may serve as biomarkers, leading to the use of non-invasive biofluid for detecting and monitoring the diseases. This article summarizes the current advances in searching for potential biomarkers in saliva for human cancers, especially head and neck/oral cancers. With the new molecular profiling technologies such as microarray and proteomics, we are expecting to reveal highly discriminatory genomic and proteomic targets that can best detect the disease status.Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) 02/2009; 1:296-303.
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ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is a glycoprotein expressed by various tissues and cells. It is also implicated in tumor progression. The protein can mediate cell adhesion and is strongly associated with transformation and tumorigenesis. Overexpression of OPN influences invasion and metastasis of different human tumors, and OPN expression may be use as a possible prognostic marker. It has been detected in a growing number of human tumor types, by immunohistochemistry on tumor tissue sections. The objective of this study was to assess the immunohistochemical expression of OPN in different canine and feline tumors and to examine any possible relation with malignancy. To achieve these aim 40 different kinds of canine and feline tumors were evaluated. OPN was either not expressed or at low levels in benign tumors, but strongly expressed in malign tumors. This study showed that OPN may be associated with malignancy of cat and dog tumors. Keywords: Osteopontin (OPN), immunohistochemistry, dog, cat, tumorRevue de médecine vétérinaire 01/2015; 1-2:2-10. · 0.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer is now viewed as a systems biology disease, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) can be viewed in a similar fashion. In this paper, we highlight some of the novel molecular events in OSCC, revealed through an integrative strategy of systems biology based on high-throughput omics analysis such as genomics and/or proteomics, the most powerful hypothesis-generating means available today. These approaches have resulted not only in the identification of novel genes for OSCC, but also in more comprehensive networks that describe the mechanisms by which those identified events work, with the promise of developing this knowledge into biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic responses in OSCC patients. Long-term, population-based prospective studies of OSCC patients, and those at high risk of developing OSCC, will then be needed to validate these biomarkers.Journal of dental research 10/2010; 90(5):561-72. DOI:10.1177/0022034510383691 · 4.14 Impact Factor