Absence of visual and auditory P300 reduction in nondepressed male and female alcoholics.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Pennsylvania, USA.
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.26). 11/1999; 46(7):982-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3223(99)00054-2
Source: PubMed


The P300 component of the event-related potential has been extensively studied as a possible neurobiological risk marker for the development of alcoholism. Although P300 amplitude reduction has frequently been documented in high-risk children, studies of adult alcoholics are inconsistent.
P300 amplitude from 121 adult alcoholics was compared to 68 controls utilizing event-related potential paradigms from the auditory and visual modalities. All participants were evaluated clinically with psychiatric interviews and administered the MMPI.
Male alcoholics did not show a reduction in amplitude in either the auditory or visual modality. Female alcoholics showed reduced P300 amplitude, but only when a comorbid lifetime diagnosis of depression was present. Similar results were found using current depressed mood (Scale 2 from the MMPI).
No differences in P300 amplitude were found between alcoholics and controls unless comorbid depression was present. Therefore, P300 amplitude reduction seen in children at high-risk for developing alcoholism seems to represent a neurodevelopmental delay that normalizes by adulthood.

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    • "Deficits caused by dysfunction of any of these brain areas would eventually lead to deficits in the resultant response inhibition. ERP studies of long term alcoholics as well as on individuals at risk for developing alcoholism, have consistently reported reduced P3 amplitude in various task paradigms (Begleiter et al., 1984; Cohen et al., 2002; Ehlers et al., 2001, 2007; Hada et al., 2000; Hill et al., 1999a; Hill and Shen, 2002; Hill et al., 1999b; Porjesz and Begleiter, 1987, 1990, 1991; Prabhu et al., 2001; Rodriguez Holguin et al., 1999; Suresh et al., 2003; for a meta-analysis see Polich et al., 1994; Porjesz et al., 2005). In Go/NoGo tasks, the anteriorly distributed NoGo P3 potentials have markedly reduced amplitudes in alcoholic subjects as well as in high-risk individuals, indicating impaired inhibitory control in these individuals (Cohen et al., 1997a, 1997b; Kamarajan et al., 2005a, 2005b; Saunders et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: In alcoholism research, studies concerning time-locked electrophysiological aspects of response inhibition have concentrated mainly on the P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP). The objective of the present study was to investigate the N2 component of the ERP to elucidate possible brain dysfunction related to the motor response and its inhibition using a Go/NoGo task in alcoholics. The sample consisted of 78 abstinent alcoholic males and 58 healthy male controls. The N2 peak was compared across group and task conditions. Alcoholics showed significantly reduced N2 peak amplitudes compared to normal controls for Go as well as NoGo task conditions. Control subjects showed significantly larger NoGo than Go N2 amplitudes at frontal regions, whereas alcoholics did not show any differences between task conditions at frontal regions. Standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis (sLORETA) indicated that alcoholics had significantly lower current density at the source than control subjects for the NoGo condition at bilateral anterior prefrontal regions, whereas the differences between groups during the Go trials were not statistically significant. Furthermore, NoGo current density across both groups revealed significantly more activation in bilateral anterior cingulate cortical (ACC) areas, with the maximum activation in the right cingulate regions. However, the magnitude of this difference was much less in alcoholics compared to control subjects. These findings suggest that alcoholics may have deficits in effortful processing during the motor response and its inhibition, suggestive of possible frontal lobe dysfunction.
    Biological psychology 01/2012; 89(1):170-82. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.10.009 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Dramatic changes in the neurophysiology of the brain have also been noted during adolescent development in humans (Niedermeyer, 1999; Pearce et al., 1989). One electrophysiological measure that has been intensively studied in human subjects to assay ethanol effects, ethanol related risks and vulnerability to several mental disorders is the P300 or P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP) (see Bauer and Hesselbrock, 1999a, 1999b; Begleiter and Porjesz, 1999; Hansenne and Ansseau, 1999; Hill et al., 1999a; Mathalon et al., 2000; Polich et al., 1994; Porjesz et al., 2005). The P3 is a positive going potential with a latency of about 300 msec when it is elicited by auditory stimuli in normal young adults (Donchin et al., 1986; Sutton et al., 1965). "
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    ABSTRACT: This review discusses evidence for long-lasting neurophysiological changes that may occur following exposure to ethanol during adolescent development in animal models. Adolescence is the time that most individuals first experience ethanol exposure, and binge drinking is not uncommon during adolescence. If alcohol exposure is neurotoxic to the developing brain during adolescence, not unlike it is during fetal development, then understanding how ethanol affects the developing adolescent brain becomes a major public health issue. Adolescence is a critical time period when cognitive, emotional, and social maturation occurs and it is likely that ethanol exposure may affect these complex processes. To study the effects of ethanol on adolescent brain, animal models where the dose and time of exposure can be carefully controlled that closely mimic the human condition are needed. The studies reviewed provide evidence that demonstrates that relatively brief exposure to high levels of ethanol, via ethanol vapors, during a period corresponding to parts of adolescence in the rat is sufficient to cause long-lasting changes in functional brain activity. Disturbances in waking electroencephalogram and a reduction in the P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP) have been demonstrated in adult rats that were exposed to ethanol vapor during adolescence. Adolescent ethanol exposure was also found to produce long-lasting reductions in the mean duration of slow-wave sleep (SWS) episodes and the total amount of time spent in SWS, a finding consistent with a premature aging of sleep. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings, in a range of strains, and to link those findings to the neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms potentially underlying the lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure.
    Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) 02/2010; 44(1):27-37. DOI:10.1016/j.alcohol.2009.09.033 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    • "These studies confirm previous findings in a Native American population residing in a similar geographic location where an increase in both P350 and P450 amplitudes were found in individuals with a personal history of affective disorder (Criado and Ehlers, in submission). These findings, however, do not confirm the study of Hill et al. (1999a) who found reduced P300 amplitude in female alcoholics with a comorbid lifetime diagnosis of depression. However, two other studies have also found larger P3 amplitudes in participants with affective disorder. "
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between the P450 component elicited by affective stimuli and: a personal history of alcohol dependence, antisocial personality disorder/conduct disorder (ASPD/CD) or affective anxiety disorders (ANYAXAF) was examined in Mexican Americans, a group with high rates of heavy drinking. Data from two hundred and twenty two young adults between the ages of 18 and 30 were used in the analyses. ERPs were collected using a task that required discrimination between faces with neutral, sad and happy facial expressions. DSM-IIIR diagnoses were obtained using a structured interview and personality traits were indexed using the Maudsley personality inventory. Men had significantly diminished P450 responses, when compared to women which were further reduced in men with ASPD/CD; whereas, a significant increase in P450 amplitudes was seen in those participants with ANYAXAF. P450 amplitudes were also significantly increased in men with high extraversion scores and in women with high neuroticism scores. No significant associations were seen between the P450 amplitude and the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. These data suggest that interpretations of P450 responses in Mexican Americans need to take into account the interactions between gender, the affective valence of the eliciting stimuli, as well as psychiatric status.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 01/2008; 88(2):148-57. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2007.07.019 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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