Three-dimensional helical CT angiography in renal transplant recipients: a new problem-solving tool.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.74). 11/1999; 173(4):1085-9. DOI: 10.2214/ajr.173.4.10511184
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe the use of three-dimensional helical CT angiography for the evaluation of renal transplant recipients presenting with hypertension, graft dysfunction, or both after transplantation by evaluating the native and transplanted renal arteries in a single examination. CONCLUSION: Early results indicate that three-dimensional helical CT angiography of renal transplant recipients presenting with hypertension, graft dysfunction, or both after transplantation yields valuable information that can be used to guide further therapy.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS) is a well-recognized vascular complication after kidney transplant. It occurs most frequently in the first 6 months after kidney transplant, and is one of the major causes of graft loss and premature death in transplant recipients. Renal hypoperfusion occurring in TRAS results in activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; patients usually present with worsening or refractory hypertension, fluid retention and often allograft dysfunction. Flash pulmonary edema can develop in patients with critical bilateral renal artery stenosis or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney, and this unique clinical entity has been named Pickering Syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of TRAS can prevent allograft damage and systemic sequelae. Duplex sonography is the most commonly used screening tool, whereas angiography provides the definitive diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement can be performed during angiography if a lesion is identified, and it is generally the first-line therapy for TRAS. However, there is no randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy and safety of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty compared with medical therapy alone or surgical intervention.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for the assessment of hemodynamically significant transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). After institutional review board approval, records of 27 patients with TRAS confirmed on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 13 patients had MRA and 14 had CTA before DSA. Two board-certified fellowship-trained radiologists, one each from interventional radiology and body imaging blindly reviewed the DSA and CTA or MRA data, respectively. Sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRA and CTA were estimated using 50% stenosis as the detection threshold for significant TRAS. These parameters were compared between modalities using the Fisher exact test. Bias between MRA or CTA imaging and DSA was tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Two patients were excluded from the MRA group owing to susceptibility artifacts obscuring the TRAS. The correlation between MRA and DSA measurements of stenosis was r = 0.57 (95% CI:-0.02, 0.87; P = 0.052) and between CTA and DSA measurements was r = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; P = 0.015); the difference between the 2 techniques was not significant (P = 0.7). Both imaging modalities tended to underestimate the degree of stenosis when compared with DSA. MRA group (SN and SP: 56% and 100%, respectively) and CTA group (SN and SP: 81% and 67%, respectively). There were no significant differences in detection performance between modalities (P>0.3 for all measures). We did not find that either modality had any advantage over the other in terms of measuring or detecting significant stenosis. Accordingly, MRA may be preferred over CTA after positive color Doppler ultrasound screening when not contraindicated owing to lack of ionizing radiation or nephrotoxic iodinated contrast. However, susceptibility of artifacts owing to surgical clips at the anastomosis may limit diagnostic utility of MRA as found in 2 of 13 patients. Trend towards no significant difference between the CTA and enhanced MRA in the detection of hemodynamically significant TRAS.
    Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology 07/2014; 43(4):162-8. DOI:10.1067/j.cpradiol.2014.03.001
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: RESUMO Paciente do sexo masculino, com 47 anos de idade, com diagnóstico de doença renal crônica estágio 5 por doença renal policística e em terapia dialítica por cinco anos foi submetido a transplante renal. No pós-operatório, o paciente apresentou disfunção do enxerto e hipertensão não-contro-lada, havendo necessidade de reintrodução da diálise. Ultrassom Doppler da artéria de rim transplantado foi suges-tiva de estenose, e angiotomografia computadorizada con-firmou o achado. No 49 o dia de pós-operatório, foi realizada angiografia rotacional tridimensional da artéria do enxerto renal e visualizou-se imagem de dissecção causando estenose grave. Foi realizada angioplastia com implante de stent com sucesso e o paciente não mais necessita de diálise e mantém boa evolução do quadro nos últimos seis meses. Estenose de artéria renal é complicação comum, secundária, na maioria das vezes, a placa aterosclerótica. Rastreamento com ultrassom Doppler e confirmação diagnóstica com angiografia são as estratégias recomendadas, visando à intervenção. Dissecção é uma possível causa de estenose de artéria de rim transplantado.
    01/2011; 19(4). DOI:10.1590/S2179-83972011000400017


Available from