HAART in HIV-infected patients: restoration of antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses in vitro is correlated with CD4 memory T-cell reconstitution, whereas improvement in delayed type hypersensitivity is related to a decrease in viraemia

Kantonsspital St. Gallen, San Gallo, Saint Gallen, Switzerland
AIDS (Impact Factor: 6.56). 11/1999; 13(14):1857-62. DOI: 10.1097/00002030-199910010-00007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To analyse prospectively the effect of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on CD4 T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo in HIV-infected patients.
Prospective study with 49 protease inhibitor-naive adult patients. Data were collected at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of HAART.
In vitro CD4 T-cell reactivity was analysed by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with several antigens. In vivo CD4 T-cell reactivity (delayed type hypersensitivity) was assessed by Multitest Merieux. Both measurements were correlated to CD4 (memory) T-cell count and HIV-1 viraemia.
Restoration of specific CD4 T-cell proliferation was observed in most patients. The in vitro T-cell response was restored more frequently against antigens to which the immune system is constantly exposed (Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium) as compared with a low-exposure antigen (tetanus toxoid). Overall, delayed type hypersensitivity detection rate increased under HAART. Multivariate analysis showed improvement of antigen-specific T-cell proliferation to be significantly associated with an increase in memory CD4 T-cells, whereas improvement of the delayed type hypersensitivity response was associated with a decrease in plasma HIV-1 RNA.
HAART for 6 months restored antigen-specific CD4 T-cell response to several antigens. In vitro immune reconstitution was closely correlated with an increase in memory CD4 cells. Restoration of delayed type hypersensitivity was associated with suppression of viraemia. It appears that in addition to expansion of memory CD4 cells, suppression of viraemia following HAART may allow an improved inflammatory reaction, thus providing even stronger immune reconstitution.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) testing is an in vivo assessment of cell-mediated immunity. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) improves immunologic parameters, the relationship between DTH responsiveness and CD4 gains on HAART is not completely understood. We investigated CD4 reconstitution and the change in DTH responses from treatment baseline through 24 months of viral load (VL)-suppressive HAART in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study.Methods: Treatment-naïve subjects with VL <400 copies/mL after ≥24 months on HAART were included (n=302). DTH testing consisted of ≥3 recall antigens, and responses were classified by the number of positive skin tests: anergic (0-1) or non-anergic (≥2). Pre-HAART DTH results were compared for the outcome of CD4 reconstitution at 24 months of HAART. Improvement in DTH responses was also analyzed for those anergic before HAART initiation.Results: Non-anergic responses were observed in 216 (72%) participants, while 86 (28%) individuals were anergic prior to HAART initiation. Demographically there were similar distributions of age at HIV diagnosis and HAART initiation, as well as gender and race or ethnicity. There were no significant differences between non-anergic and anergic participants in pre-HAART CD4 count (409 cells/μL, interquartile range (IQR) 315-517 vs. 373 cells/μL, IQR 228-487; p=0.104) and VL (4.3 log10 copies/mL, IQR 3.4-4.9 vs. 4.4 log10 copies/mL, IQR 3.6-5.0; p=0.292). Median CD4 gains 24 months after HAART initiation were similar between the non-anergic (220 cells/μL, IQR 115-358) and anergic groups (246 cells/μL, IQR 136-358; p=0.498). For individuals anergic before HAART initiation, DTH normalization occurred at 24 months post-HAART in the majority of participants (51 of 86, 59%). Normalization of DTH responses was not associated with CD4 count at HAART initiation (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.47, 1.09 per 100 cells; p=0.129) nor with AIDS diagnoses prior to HAART (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.04, 2.51; p=0.283).Conclusions: DTH responsiveness has been shown to predict HIV disease progression independent of CD4 count in untreated individuals. In the setting of HAART, pre-HAART anergy does not appear to impact CD4 gains or the ability to normalize DTH responses after 24 months of VL-suppressive HAART.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 02/2014; 17(1):18799. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.1.18799 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background After the onset of HAART, some HIV-infected individuals under treatment present a exacerbated inflammation in response to a latent or a previously treated opportunistic pathogen termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Few reports of tegumentary leishmaniasis have been described in association with IRIS. Moreover, the immunopathogenesis of IRIS in association with Leishmania is unclear.Case presentationThe present study reports on a 29-year-old HIV-infected individual who developed mucocutaneous leishmaniasis associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) five months following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Severe lesions resulted in the partial destruction of the nasal septum, with improvement observed 15 days after treatment with Amphotericin B and corticosteroids. The immune response of this patient was evaluated before and after the lesions healed. IRIS was diagnosed in association with high levels of TNF-¿ and IL-6. Decreased production of IFN-¿ and a low IFN-¿/IL-10 ratio were also observed in response to Leishmania antigens. After receiving anti-leishmanial treatment, the individual¿s specific Th1 immune response was restored.Conclusion The results suggest that the production of inflammatory cytokines by unstimulated T-lymphocytes could contribute to occurrence of leishmaniasis associated with IRIS.
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    The Journal of infection 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jinf.2013.11.016 · 4.13 Impact Factor

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