Antibody-dependent reductions in mouse hookworm burden after vaccination with Ancylostoma caninum secreted protein 1
ABSTRACT Vaccination of mice with either third-stage Ancylostoma caninum infective hookworm larvae (L3) or alum-precipitated recombinant Ancylostoma secreted protein 1 from A. caninum (Ac-ASP-1) results in protection against hookworm challenge infections. Vaccine protection is manifested by reductions in lung hookworm burdens at 48 h postchallenge. Mice actively immunized 4 times with Ac-ASP-1 also exhibited reductions in hookworm burden in the muscles. Hookworm burden reductions from Ac-ASP-1 immunization were associated with elevations in all immunoglobulin subclasses, with the greatest rise observed in host IgG1 and IgG2b. The addition of a fourth immunization resulted in even higher levels of IgG and IgE. In contrast, L3-vaccinated mice exhibited marked elevations in IgG1 and IgM, including anti-Ac-ASP-1 IgM antibody. Passive immunization with pooled sera from recombinant Ac-ASP-1-vaccinated mice also resulted in lung hookworm burden reductions. It is hypothesized that recombinant Ac-ASP-1 vaccinations elicit antibody that interferes with parasite larval migration.
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ABSTRACT: Activation associated secreted proteins (ASP) are members of a nematode-specific protein family belonging to the SCP/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 family. Three different types of molecules have been identified in this family: two-domain ASPs and single-domain ASPs showing homology to either the C-terminal or N-terminal domain of the two-domain ASP. The function of these proteins is still unclear, but a role in transition to parasitism and a role as allergen are often suggested. Here we report that the abomasal cattle parasite Ostertagia ostertagi produces at least 15 ASPs, including two-domain and C- and N-type single-domain ASPs. Ten of these are highly transcribed in the L4 stage, whereas others are highly enriched in adult male worms. The latter was especially the case for the N-type single-domain ASPs Oo-ASP1 and Oo-ASP2 and also for Oo-ASP3, which is homologous with the Haemonchus contortus and Ancylostoma caninum C-type single-domain ASPs. Immunohistochemistry showed that Oo-ASP3 was localised in the oesophagus. Oo-ASP1 and Oo-ASP2 on the other hand were localised in the reproductive tract of both male and female worms, suggesting a role in reproduction or in the development of the reproductive tract.International Journal for Parasitology 04/2008; 38(3-4):455-65. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2007.08.008 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While X-irradiated live parasites are not an acceptable proposition for human vaccination, they offer a ready experimental system to explore mechanisms by which immunity against hookworm infection may be induced in humans. As such, we sought to further elucidate the details of this highly protective immune response induced by the irradiated vaccine in canids, with special emphasis on the cellular aspects of the response. Vaccination with irradiated L3 induced high production of antibodies and strong PBMCs proliferation to crude L3 antigen preparation. Elevated IL-4 production was also observed in vaccinated dogs, especially in relation to IFN-gamma production (IL-4/IFN-gamma ratio). Serum from vaccinated animals inhibited penetration of L3 through canine skin in vitro by 60%. Finally, vaccinated animals had a strong antibody response to ASP-2, a promising vaccine antigen that is an excretory-secretory product of L3. These results add further support the idea that the Th2 immune response is required to generate protective immunity against hookworm larvae and that ES molecules released during this developmental stage are likely targets of this response.Vaccine 02/2006; 24(4):501-9. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.07.091 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The control of helminth diseases of people and livestock continues to rely on the widespread use of anti-helminthic drugs. However, concerns with the appearance of drug resistant parasites and the presence of pesticide residues in food and the environment, has given further incentive to the goal of discovering molecular vaccines against these pathogens. The exponential rate at which gene and protein sequence information is accruing for many helminth parasites requires new methods for the assimilation and analysis of the data and for the identification of molecules capable of inducing immunological protection. Some promising vaccine candidates have been discovered, in particular cathepsin L proteases from Fasciola hepatica, aminopeptidases from Haemonchus contortus, and aspartic proteases from schistosomes and hookworms, all of which are secreted into the host tissues or into the parasite intestine where they play important roles in host-parasite interactions. Since secreted proteins, in general, are exposed to the immune system of the host they represent obvious candidates at which vaccines could be targeted. Therefore, in this article, we consider the potential values and uses of algorithms for characterising cDNAs amongst the collated helminth genomic information that encode secreted proteins, and methods for their selective isolation and cloning. We also review the variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell expression systems that have been employed for the production and downstream purification of recombinant proteins in functionally active form, and provide an overview of the parameters that must be considered if these recombinant proteins are to be commercialised as vaccine therapeutics in humans and/or animals.International Journal for Parasitology 06/2003; 33(5-6):621-40. DOI:10.1016/S0020-7519(03)00057-2 · 3.40 Impact Factor