Endoanal MR imaging of the anal sphincter in fecal incontinence.
ABSTRACT Fecal incontinence is a major medical and social problem. The most frequent cause is a pathologic condition of the anal sphincter. Endoanal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows detailed visualization of the normal anatomy and pathologic conditions of the anal sphincter. The hyperintense internal sphincter appears as a continuation of the smooth muscle of the rectum; the hypointense external sphincter surrounds the lower part of the internal sphincter. A sphincteric defect is seen as a discontinuity of the muscle ring. Scarring appears as a hypointense deformation of the normal pattern of the muscle layer. Two external sphincteric patterns may be misdiagnosed as defects: a posterior discontinuity (often seen in young male patients) and an anterior discontinuity (often seen in female patients). Atrophy of the external sphincter is easily detected on coronal MR images by comparing the thicknesses of all anal muscles. Endoanal MR imaging is superior to endoanal ultrasonography because of the multiplanar capability and higher inherent contrast resolution of the former. Use of endoanal MR imaging may lead to better selection of candidates for surgery and therefore better surgical results. Endoanal MR imaging is the most accurate technique for detection and characterization of sphincteric lesions and planning of optimal therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Good functional outcome following anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer is an important clinical goal, but its prediction has proven difficult. Assessments such as anal manometry have been advocated as a potential tool but functional anatomy as depicted on MRI has not been investigated. This study looked at whether sphincter complex measurements recorded from preoperative staging MRIs and preoperative anal manometry have any correlation with functional outcome. Consecutive patients with rectal adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative manometric assessment and MRI staging. MRIs were assessed with regard to anorectal angle, puborectalis thickness, canal length and external and internal anal sphincter thickness. Functional outcome was categorized into three groups according to the number of adverse postoperative symptoms (frequency, urgency, leakage, diarrhoea, use of pads, use of antidiarrhoeal medication): 0, 1 and ≥ 2. This was evaluated 1 year following surgery and 6 months following stoma reversal where applicable. Univariate analysis of an ordinal regression model was performed with significance at the 5% level. Thirty patients were assessed. No single preoperative manometric parameter proved significant (P > 0.05). Only puborectalis thickness showed a significant (P = 0.01) relationship with the number of adverse symptoms suffered postoperatively. On receiver operating characteristics analysis, a cut-off value of 3.5 mm gave an optimal sensitivity of 0.5 (95% CI, 0.17-0.83) and specificity of 0.86 (95% CI, 0.64-0.96). Measurements of the puborectalis thickness on preoperative staging MRIs for rectal cancer may help predict functional outcome following AR. Prospective assessment of larger numbers with a fully validated continence score are required to evaluate these findings further.Colorectal Disease 01/2012; 14(6):e339-45. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endoanal ultrasound is widely used for the detection of external and internal anal sphincter defects in patients with fecal incontinence. Recently, 3-dimensional transperineal ultrasound has been introduced as a noninvasive imaging method for the detection of these sphincter defects. This study was designed to assess agreement between 3-dimensional transperineal ultrasound and 2-dimensional endoanal ultrasound regarding the detection of anal sphincter defects in women with fecal incontinence. This study was designed as a prospective observational study. The study took place in a university hospital. Between October 2008 and June 2009, all women with concerns of fecal incontinence underwent 2-dimensional endoanal ultrasound as well as 3-dimensional transperineal ultrasound. The main outcome measures are the presence of external and internal anal sphincter defects. Fifty-five patients were included. External and internal anal sphincter defects were observed with 2-dimensional endoanal ultrasound in 27 (49%) and 15 (27%) patients. Three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound detected an external and internal sphincter defect in 19 (35%) and 16 (29%) patients. The Cohen κ coefficient for the detection of external (κ = 0.63) and internal (κ = 0.78) anal sphincter defects was good. This study's limitations include the absence of a surgical examination as the reference standard in the determination of sphincter defects. This study shows good agreement between 3-dimensional transperineal ultrasound and 2-dimensional endoanal ultrasound regarding the detection of anal sphincter defects. Based on these data, 3-dimensional transperineal ultrasound might be considered as a valuable alternative noninvasive investigation method.Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 06/2012; 55(6):646-52. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To prospectively analyze static and dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) images simultaneously to determine whether stress urinary incontinence (SUI), pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and anal incontinence are associated with specific pelvic floor abnormalities. This study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all participants. There were 59 women: 15 nulliparous study control women (mean age, 25.6 years) and 44 patients (mean age, 43.4 years), who were divided into four groups according to chief symptom. Static T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were used in evaluating structural derangements; functional dynamic (cine) balanced fast-field echo images were used in detecting functional abnormalities and recording five measurements of supporting structures. Findings on both types of MR images were analyzed together to determine the predominant defect. Analysis of variance and the Bonferroni t test were used to compare groups. In the four patient groups, POP was associated with levator muscle weakness in 16 (47%) of 34 patients, with level I and II fascial defects in seven (21%) of 34 patients, and with both defects in 11 (32%) of 34 patients. SUI was associated with defects of the urethral supporting structures in 25 (86%) of 29 patients but was not associated with bladder neck descent. Levator muscle weakness may lead to anal incontinence in the absence of anal sphincter defects. Measurements of supporting structures were significant (P < .05) in the identification of pelvic floor laxity. Combined analysis of static and dynamic MR images of patients with pelvic floor dysfunction allowed identification of certain structural abnormalities with specific dysfunctions.Radiology 09/2008; 248(2):518-30. · 6.34 Impact Factor