Endoanal MR imaging of the anal sphincter in fecal incontinence.
ABSTRACT Fecal incontinence is a major medical and social problem. The most frequent cause is a pathologic condition of the anal sphincter. Endoanal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows detailed visualization of the normal anatomy and pathologic conditions of the anal sphincter. The hyperintense internal sphincter appears as a continuation of the smooth muscle of the rectum; the hypointense external sphincter surrounds the lower part of the internal sphincter. A sphincteric defect is seen as a discontinuity of the muscle ring. Scarring appears as a hypointense deformation of the normal pattern of the muscle layer. Two external sphincteric patterns may be misdiagnosed as defects: a posterior discontinuity (often seen in young male patients) and an anterior discontinuity (often seen in female patients). Atrophy of the external sphincter is easily detected on coronal MR images by comparing the thicknesses of all anal muscles. Endoanal MR imaging is superior to endoanal ultrasonography because of the multiplanar capability and higher inherent contrast resolution of the former. Use of endoanal MR imaging may lead to better selection of candidates for surgery and therefore better surgical results. Endoanal MR imaging is the most accurate technique for detection and characterization of sphincteric lesions and planning of optimal therapy.
Article: Pelvic floor muscle lesions at endoanal MR imaging in female patients with faecal incontinence.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the frequency and spectrum of lesions of different pelvic floor muscles at endoanal MRI in women with severe faecal incontinence and to study their relation with incontinence severity and manometric findings. In 105 women MRI examinations were evaluated for internal anal sphincter (IAS), external anal sphincter (EAS), puborectal muscle (PM) and levator ani (LA) lesions. The relative contribution of lesions to differences in incontinence severity and manometric findings was studied. IAS (n = 59) and EAS (n = 61) defects were more common than PM (n = 23) and LA (n = 26) defects. PM and LA defects presented mainly with IAS and/or EAS defects (isolated n = 2 and n = 3). EAS atrophy (n = 73) was more common than IAS (n = 19), PM (n = 16) and LA (n = 9) atrophy and presented mainly isolated. PM and LA atrophy presented primarily with EAS atrophy (isolated n = 3 and n = 1). Patients with IAS and EAS lesions had a lower resting and squeeze pressure, respectively; no other associations were found. PM and LA lesions are relatively common in patients with severe faecal incontinence, but the majority of lesions are found in women who also have IAS and/or EAS lesions. Only an association between anal sphincter lesions and manometry was observed.European Radiology 05/2008; 18(9):1892-901. · 3.22 Impact Factor
Article: Can the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence be predicted?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pelvic-floor rehabilitation does not provide the same degree of relief in all fecal incontinent patients. We aimed at studying prospectively the ability of tests to predict the outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence. Two hundred fifty consecutive patients (228 women) underwent medical history and a standardized series of tests, including physical examination, anal manometry, pudendal nerve latency testing, anal sensitivity testing, rectal capacity measurement, defecography, endoanal sonography, and endoanal magnetic resonance imaging. Subsequently, patients were referred for pelvic-floor rehabilitation. Outcome of pelvic-floor rehabilitation was quantified by the Vaizey incontinence score. Linear regression analyses were used to identify candidate predictors and to construct a multivariable prediction model for the posttreatment Vaizey score. After pelvic-floor rehabilitation, the mean baseline Vaizey score (18, SD+/-3) was reduced with 3.2 points (p<0.001). In addition to the baseline Vaizey score, three elements from medical history were significantly associated with the posttreatment Vaizey score (presence of passive incontinence, thin stool consistency, primary repair of a rupture after vaginal delivery at childbed) (R2, 0.18). The predictive value was significantly but marginally improved by adding the following test results: perineal and/or perianal scar tissue (physical examination), and maximal squeeze pressure (anal manometry; R2, 0.20; p=0.05). Additional tests have a limited role in predicting success of pelvic-floor rehabilitation in patients with fecal incontinence.International Journal of Colorectal Disease 06/2008; 23(5):503-11. · 2.38 Impact Factor