Automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of beta-blockers and metabolites in urine and serum samples.
ABSTRACT The technique of automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) was evaluated for the determination of beta-blockers in urine and serum samples. In-tube SPME is an extraction technique for organic compounds in aqueous samples, in which analytes are extracted from the sample directly into an open tubular capillary by repeated draw/eject cycles of sample solution. LC/MS analyses of beta-blockers were initially performed by liquid injection onto a LC column. Nine beta-blockers tested in this study gave very simple ESI mass spectra, and strong signals corresponding to [M + H]+ were observed for all beta-blockers. The beta-blockers were separated with a Hypersil BDS C18 column using acetonitrile/methanol/water/acetic acid (15:15:70:1) as a mobile phase. To optimize the extraction of beta-blockers, several in-tube SPME parameters were examined. The optimum extraction conditions were 15 draw/eject cycles of 30 microL of sample in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.5) at a flow rate of 100 microL/min using an Omegawax 250 capillary (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA). The beta-blockers extracted by the capillary were easily desorbed by mobile-phase flow, and carryover of beta-blockers was not observed. Using in-tube SPME/LC/ESI-MS with selected ion monitoring, the calibration curves of beta-blockers were linear in the range from 2 to 100 ng/mL with correlation coefficients above 0.9982 (n = 18) and detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.1-1.2 ng/mL. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of biological samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of beta-blockers spiked into human urine and serum samples were above 84 and 71%, respectively. A serum sample from a patient administrated propranolol was analyzed using this method and both propranolol and its metabolites were detected.
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ABSTRACT: In drug discovery and development, the quantification of drugs in biological samples is an important task for the determination of the physiological performance of the investigated drugs. After sampling, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. Because of the low concentration levels of drug in plasma and the variety of the metabolites, the selected extraction technique should be virtually exhaustive. Recent developments of sample handling techniques are directed, from one side, toward automatization and online coupling of sample preparation units. The primary objective of this review is to present the recent developments in microextraction sample preparation methods for analysis of drugs in biological fluids. Microextraction techniques allow for less consumption of solvent, reagents, and packing materials, and small sample volumes can be used. In this review the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME), microextraction in packed sorbent (MEPS), and stir-bar sorbtive extraction (SBSE) in drug analysis will be discussed. In addition, the use of new sorbents such as monoliths and molecularly imprinted polymers will be presented.Journal of analytical methods in chemistry. 01/2014; 2014:921350.
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ABSTRACT: For a long time, sample preparation was unrecognized as a critical issue in the analytical methodology, thus limiting the performance that could be achieved. However, the improvement of microextraction techniques, particularly microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), completely modified this scenario by introducing unprecedented control over this process. Urine is a biological fluid that is very interesting for metabolomics studies, allowing human health and disease characterization in a minimally invasive form. In this manuscript, we will critically review the most relevant and promising works in this field, highlighting how the metabolomic profiling of urine can be an extremely valuable tool for the early diagnosis of highly prevalent diseases, such as cardiovascular, oncologic and neurodegenerative ones.Metabolites. 01/2014; 4(1):71-97.
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ABSTRACT: A temperature-controlling device for in-tube solid-phase microextraction was developed based on thermoelectric cooling and heating. This device can control the temperature of the capillary column from 0 to 100°C by applying a voltage to a Peltier cooler or stainless-steel tube. The extraction temperatures for angiotensin I, propranolol and ranitidine were optimized. In all cases, setting the temperature to 10°C for extraction achieved the best extraction efficiency. Desorption showed minimum peak broadening at 70°C, contributing to better chromatographic performance. Propranolol was selected as a model compound to compare the performance of temperature controlled in-tube solid-phase microextraction at optimized conditions. Calibration curves exhibited good linearity (R2 > 0.999) over the studied range, and LOD and LOQ were about three times lower than those obtained at standard conditions (30°C extraction and desorption).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reservedJournal of Separation Science 04/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor