Involvement of small GTPases in Mycoplasma fermentans membrane lipoproteins-mediated activation of macrophages.
ABSTRACT Mycoplasma fermentans lipoproteins (LAMPf) are capable of activating macrophages and inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. We have recently reported that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and NF-kappaB and activated protein 1 (AP-1) play a crucial role in the activation induced by this bacterial compound. To further elucidate the mechanisms by which LAMPf mediate the activation of macrophages, we assessed the effects of inhibiting small G proteins Rac, Cdc42, and Rho. The Rho-specific inhibitor C3 enzyme completely abolished the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha by macrophages stimulated with LAMPf and also inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase. In addition, we have shown that LAMPf stimulate Cdc42 and that inhibition of Cdc42 or Rac by dominant negative mutants abrogates LAMPf-mediated activation of JNK and transactivation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. These results indicate that small G proteins Rho, Cdc42, and Rac are involved in the cascade of events leading to the macrophage activation by mycoplasma lipoproteins.
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ABSTRACT: To understand the effects of the interaction between Mycoplasma and cells on the host cellular function, it is important to elucidate the influences of infection of cells with Mycoplasma on nuclear enzymes such as DNA Topoisomerase type I (Topo I). Human Topo I participates in DNA transaction processes and is the target of anti-cancer drugs, the camptothecins (CPTs). Here we investigated the mechanism by which infection of human tumor cells with Mycoplasma fermentans affects the activity and expression of cellular Topo I, and the anti-cancer efficacy of CPT. Human cancer cells were infected or treated with live or sonicated M. fermentans and the activity and expression of Topo I was determined. M. fermentans significantly reduced (by 80%) Topo I activity in the infected/treated tumor cells without affecting the level of Topo I protein. We demonstrate that this reduction in enzyme activity resulted from ADP-ribosylation of the Topo I protein by Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1). In addition, pERK was activated as a result of the induction of the MAPK signal transduction pathway by M. fermentans. Since PARP-1 was shown to be activated by pERK, we concluded that M. fermentans modified the cellular Topo I activity by activation of PARP-I via the induction of the MAPK signal transduction pathway. Moreover, the infection of tumor cells with M. fermentans diminished the inhibitory effect of CPT. The results of this study suggest that modification of Topo I activity by M. fermentans may alter cellular gene expression and the response of tumor cells to Topo I inhibitors, influencing the anti-cancer capacity of Topo I antagonists.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72377. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072377 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Successful regeneration in the central nervous system crucially depends on the adequate environment. Microglia as brain immune-competent cells importantly contribute to this task by producing pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Any environmental change transforms these cells towards an activated phenotype, leading to major morphological, transcriptional and functional alterations. Rho GTPases affect multiple cellular properties, including the cytoskeleton, and C3 proteins are widely used to study their involvement. Especially C3bot from Clostridium botulinum has been considered to promote neuronal regeneration by changing Rho activity. Yet C3bot may exert cellular influences through alternative mechanisms. To determine the role of Rho-dependent pathways in microglia we investigated the influence of C3bot on functional properties of cultivated primary mouse microglial cells. Nanomolar concentrations of C3bot transformed microglia towards an activated phenotype and triggered the release of nitric oxide and several proinflammatory cyto- and chemokines. These inductions were not mediated by the ROCK-kinase pathway, since its selective inhibitors Y27632 and H1152 had no effect. C3-induced and Rho-mediated NO release was instead found to be under the control of NFkappaB, as revealed by treatment with the NFkappaB inhibitor PDTC. Thus, C3bot induces a proinflammatory response in microglia resembling the classical proinflammatory phenotype elicited by bacterial LPS. The findings are relevant for the use of C3bot in regenerative approaches.Glia 08/2008; 56(11):1162-75. DOI:10.1002/glia.20687 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Mycoplasma genus comprises a group of microbes that cause persistent infection in humans and its role in promoting tumor development has long been a concern. Although mixtures of components isolated from Mycoplasma have been shown to activate host Rho family small GTPases and Stat3, no individual factor with this activity has been reported. In the current study, a conserved small GTPase-like protein fragment (SGLP) from Mycoplasma pulmonis chromosome partition protein, Smc, was identified as a virulence factor. SGLP was observed to interact with Rac1 and Stat3. The wild‑type (wt) SGLP, which contains a WxxxE motif, induced activation of Rac1 and phosphorylation of Stat3 at the tyrosine‑705 residue, while the SGLP mutant containing a mutation from WxxxE to AxxxA did not exert the same effects. Moreover, SGLP‑induced Stat3 phosphorylation was observed to be dependent upon Rac1 activity. Furthermore, wt SGLP was observed to promote cell migration and increase bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in HeLa cells and the SGLP mutant did not elicit these effects in HeLa cells. In conclusion, the current observations suggest that SGLP is an important virulence factor of Mycoplasma, which contributes to tumor cell migration and proliferation in vitro via interaction with Rac1 and Stat3.Molecular Medicine Reports 10/2013; 9(1). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2013.1766 · 1.48 Impact Factor