Effects of developer exhaustion on the sensitometric properties of four dental films

Department of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), The Netherlands.
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology (Impact Factor: 1.39). 04/1999; 28(2):80-8. DOI: 10.1038/sj/dmfr/4600416
Source: PubMed


To examine the effects of exhaustion of five different processing solutions on the sensitometric properties of four dental X-ray films: Ektaspeed Plus and Ultra-speed (Kodak Eastman Co. Rochester, USA) and new and previous Dentus M2 (Agfa-Gevaert, Mortsel, Belgium).
An aluminum stepwedge was used to construct characteristic curves for the four films. All films were processed manually using three sets of chemicals for manual processing: Agfa (Heraeus Kulzer, Dormagen, Germany), Kodak (Kodak-Pathé, Paris, France) and Demat (Viscopac, Athens, Greece) and two sets for automatic processing: Dürr XR and Periomat (Dürr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany). Film speed and gradient were evaluated until the chemicals were completely exhausted. An analysis of variance was performed separately for each set of chemicals for manual and automatic processing.
Ektaspeed Plus was the fastest film in the manual processing solutions. The new Dentus M2 and Ektaspeed Plus films had similar speed using the chemicals for automatic processing. Ultra-speed had the lowest speed in all solutions, but it had the greatest consistency. Exhaustion of the developer caused a comparable decrease in speed of Ektaspeed Plus and the two Dentus M2 films. In fresh chemistry Agfa was the strongest manual processing solution, but it had the highest exhaustion rate. The Dürr XR chemical was stronger than Periomat over the whole test period.
The combination of film and processing solution is an important factor for achieving constant sensitometric properties. Ektaspeed Plus and the new Dentus M2 film should be used in dental practice, as they require lower exposure and have equivalent or superior properties compared with Ultra-speed.

Download full-text


Available from: P.F. van der Stelt, Oct 03, 2015
49 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tese (doutorado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, 2009. O objetivo desta pesquisa é de avaliar a possibilidade de usar a imagem digital como estimadora das condições de processamento radiográfico automático. Usando filmes radiográficos expostos em um sensitômetro e processados padronizadamente, em 4 temperaturas diferentes no início dos trabalhos semanais de uma Clínica de Radiologia Odontológica, as quais foram digitalizadas e observadas pelo software: Digora for Windows 1.5.1, Digora for Windows 2.5, Gimp 2.2 for Linux e Adobe Photoshop 7.0, quanto às densidades radiográficas, ou seja o nível de cinza, que representa o grau de escurecimento da imagem. As tabelas e gráficos apresentados mostram que existe uma variação do nível de cinza, seja do grau de processamento da imagem nas quatro áreas avaliadas de cada filme e nas quatro temperaturas estudadas que são estatisticamente significantes. Os traçados característicos também mostram estas diferenças e o grau de deterioração da qualidade da imagem pelo desgaste da solução de processamento. Nossos resultados indicam que a avaliação da imagem digital, pelos softwares estudados, são eficientes e permitem o controle de qualidade do processamento radiográfico de forma adequada, mostrando que a variação dos níveis de cinza indicam o desgaste da ação das soluções de processamento, em função do tempo de uso e do aumento do número de filmes processados na rotina da clínica. ________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using the digital image as estimation of the conditions of automatic radiographic processing. Radiographic films exposed in a sensitometer and processed in a standardized way, at 4 different temperatures, at the beginning of the weekly services of a Dental Radiology Clinic were used. The films were digitized and observed by the software: Digora for Windows 1.5.1, Digora for Windows 2.5, Gimp for Linux 2.2, and Adobe Photoshop 7.0 regarding radiographic densities, that is, the degree of grey, which represents the level of image darkening. The tables and graphs presented show that there is a variation of the grey level, due to the degree of image processing at the four areas evaluated in each film and at the four temperatures studied that are statistically significant. The characteristic tracings also show these differences and the deterioration degree of the image quality due to the wear of the processing solution. Our results indicate that the evaluation of the digital image, by the studied software, is efficient and allow the quality control of the radiographic processing in an appropriate way, showing that the variations of grey level are markers of the wear of the processing solutions action, in function of both the time of use and the increase of the number of films processed in the clinic’s routine.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of developer age on image quality. Endodontic files, size 10 and 15, were placed in upper and lower molars and premolars up to the root apex or 1.5 mm short. A series of radiographs were made with each of three film types: Dentus M2 (Agfa-Gevaert, Mortsel, Belgium), Ektaspeed Plus and Ultra-speed (Kodak Eastman Co, Rochester, USA). The films were processed bi-weekly using the same Agfa chemicals (Heraeus Kulzer, Dormagen, Germany) over a 6-week period. An additional set of Dentus M2 films was processed using Periomat chemicals (Dürr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany). The films were viewed by eight dentists who rated the position of the tip of the file using a 5-point confidence scale. ROC data were analysed by means of analysis of variance. Az value was the dependent variable, whereas observer age group was entered as between subject factor. The null hypothesis was rejected when P<0.05. The diagnostic accuracies of the three films were comparable during the first 4 weeks. In the sixth week Ultra-speed was significantly better than the other two films (P=0.046). The Periomat chemicals showed significantly greater consistency than the Agfa chemicals (P=0.004). Developer exhaustion significantly affected the performance of the older observers (P=0.008), especially when Agfa chemicals and file size 10 were used. Agfa chemicals older than 4 weeks significantly affect the assessment of endodontic file length. In earlier stages there are no significant differences between the three films tested. Dentus M2 and Ektaspeed Plus films should be used as they require lower exposures.
    Dentomaxillofacial Radiology 10/1999; 28(5):311-5. DOI:10.1038/sj/dmfr/4600464 · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study reports film speed, contrast, exposure latitude, resolution, and response to processing solution depletion of Kodak Insight intraoral film. Densitometric curves were generated by using International Standards Organization protocol. Additional curves were generated for Ultra-speed, Ektaspeed Plus, and Insight films developed in progressively depleted processing solutions. Eight observers viewed images of a resolution test tool for maximum resolution assessment. Images of an aluminum step-wedge were reviewed to determine useful exposure latitude. Insight's sensitivity in fresh automatic processor solutions places it in the F-speed group. An average gradient of 1.8 was found with all film types. Insight provided 93% of the useful exposure latitude of Ektaspeed Plus film. Insight maintained contrast in progressively depleted processing solutions. Like Ektaspeed Plus, Insight was able to resolve at least 20 line-pairs per millimeter. Under International Standards Organization conditions, Insight required only 77% of the exposure of Ektaspeed Plus film. Insight film provided stable contrast in depleted processing solutions.
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 02/2001; 91(1):120-9. DOI:10.1067/moe.2001.110575 · 1.46 Impact Factor
Show more