Lack of effect of tumor size on the prognosis of carcinoma of the uterine cervix Stage IB and IIA treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate the prognostic significance of cervical tumor size in patients with Stages Ib and IIa carcinoma of the cervix treated with preoperative irradiation and radical or conservative hysterectomy.
This study is a retrospective analysis of 177 patients. One hundred forty-one patients had Stage Ib and 36 patients had Stage IIa carcinoma of the cervix. All patients were treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery. Radiation therapy consisted of external pelvic irradiation and intracavitary brachytherapy; total doses ranged from 30 to 60 Gy to the pelvic sidewall and 60 to 70 Gy to point A. Surgery consisting of radical hysterectomy and lymph node dissection or a conservative hysterectomy and lymph node dissection was performed 4 to 6 weeks after completion of irradiation.
The 5-year progression-free survivals were 80% for Stage Ib and 63% for Stage IIa (p = 0.03). The 5-year cumulative pelvic failure rates for Stage Ib were 16% for tumors <3 cm and 9% for tumors >3 cm (p = 0.90). The 5-year cumulative pelvic failure rates for Stage IIa were 22% for tumors <3 cm and 22% for tumors >3 cm (p = 0.75). The corresponding cumulative distant metastasis failure rates at 5 years for Stage Ib were 21% for tumors <3 cm and 21% for tumors >3 cm (p = 0.60). For patients with Stage IIa disease, the 5-year cumulative distant metastasis rates were 33% for tumors <3 cm and 36% for tumors >3 cm (p = 0.70). A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for the endpoint of progression-free survival. The variables that were analyzed were patient age, tumor histology, tumor size, clinical stage, point A and pelvic lymph node irradiation dose, and cervical tumor status and pelvic lymph node status at the time of hysterectomy. The variables that were found to be of independent significance for progression-free survival by multivariate analysis were pelvic lymph node irradiation dose (p <0.001), pelvic lymph node status at the time of hysterectomy (p = 0.01), and clinical stage (p = 0.02). Cervical tumor size at the time of diagnosis and the presence of tumor cells in the cervix in the hysterectomy specimen was not an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. The overall severe complication rate was 11% for all patients.
For this population of patients treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery, pelvic lymph node status at the time of hysterectomy and the preoperative irradiation dose to the pelvic lymph nodes are independent predictors of progression-free survival and the development of distant metastasis. The pretreatment cervical tumor size is of less importance for predicting progression-free survival and the development of distant metastasis but clinical stage is an important prognostic variable. These results are in contrast with those of surgery or irradiation alone, in which primary tumor size is a critical prognostic factor for all outcome parameters.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was a preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of preoperative intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) in sterilization of the specimen of operable cervical cancer patients enrolled into a prospective, randomized study. Between 2005 and 2010, 100 operable cervical cancer patients of FIGO stage I/A2 (n=4), I/B1 (n=51), I/B2 (n=19), IIA (n=17), and proximal II/B (n=9) were randomized in two arms: in arm "A" (n=50) allocated treatment was 2x8 Gy preoperative intracavitary HDR BT followed by radical surgery, in arm "B" (n= 50) no preoperative treatment was given before the planned radical Wertheim hysterectomy. The rates of pathologic complete remission (pCR) were compared using the Fisher-exact test. In arm "A" 41 patients (82%), in arm "B" 42 patients (84%) underwent radical hysterectomy. The rate of pCR after preoperative BT was 26.8% (11/41), while in the control group the specimen was free of tumor in 7.1% (3/42; p=0.0204). Preoperative HDR BT for cervical cancer patients significantly increases the rate of pathologically tumor-free specimens. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the impact of pCR on local tumor control and survival. Our preliminary results support further enrollment of patients into our randomized clinical trial.Magyar Onkológia 09/2012; 56(3):171-7.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate toxicity, local tumor control, and survival after preoperative chemoradiation for operable bulky cervical carcinoma. Between December 1991 and July 2006, 92 patients with operable bulky stage IB2, IIA, and IIB cervical carcinoma without pelvic or para-aortic nodes on pretreatment imaging were treated. Treatment consisted of preoperative external beam pelvic radiation therapy (EBRT) and concomitant chemotherapy (CT) during the first and fourth weeks of radiation combining 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The pelvic radiation dose was 40.5 Gy over 4.5 weeks. EBRT was followed by low-dose rate uterovaginal brachytherapy with a total dose of 20 Gy in 62 patients. After a median rest period of 44 days, all patients underwent Class II modified radical hysterectomy with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy. Thirty patients who had not received preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy underwent postoperative low-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy at a dose of 20 Gy. The mean follow-up was 46 months. Pathologic residual tumor was observed in 43 patients. After multivariate analysis, additional preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy was the single significant predictive factor for pathologic complete response rate (p = 0.019). The 2- and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 80.4% and 72.2%, respectively. Pathologic residual cervical tumor was the single independent factor decreasing the probability of DFS (p = 0.020). Acute toxicities were moderate. Two severe ureteral complications requiring surgical intervention were observed. Concomitant chemoradiation followed by surgery for operable bulky stage I-II cervical carcinoma without clinical lymph node involvement can be used with acceptable toxicity. Pathologic complete response increases the probability of DFS.International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 09/2008; 72(5):1508-15. · 4.59 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose. – To evaluate preliminary results in terms of toxicity, local tumour control, and survival after preoperative concomitant chemoradiation for operable bulky cervical carcinomas.Patients and methods. – Between December 1991 and October 2001, 42 patients (pts) with bulky cervical carcinomas stage IB2 (11 pts), IIA (15 pts), and IIB (16 pts) with 1/3 proximal parametrial invasion. Median age was 45 years (range: 24–75 years) and clinical median cervical tumour size was 5 cm (range: 4.1–8 cm). A clinical pelvic lymph node involvement has been observed in 10 pts. All patients underwent preoperative external beam pelvic radiation therapy (EBPRT) and concomitant chemotherapy during the first and the fourth radiation weeks combining 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. The pelvic dose was 40.50 Gy over 4.5 weeks. EBPRT was followed by low-dose-rate uterovaginal brachytherapy with a total dose of 20 Gy in 17 pts. After a rest period of 5–6 weeks, all pts underwent class II modified radical hysterectomy with bilateral lymphadenectomy. Para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed in eight pts without pathologic para-aortic lymph node involvement. Twenty-one of 25 pts who had not received preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy underwent postoperative low-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy of 20 Gy. The median follow-up was 31 months (range: 3–123 months).Results. – Pathologic residual tumour or lymph node involvement was observed in 23 pts. Among the 22 pts with pathologic residual cervical tumour (1 cm: 10 pts), seven underwent preoperative EBRT followed by uterovaginal brachytherapy vs. 15 treated with preoperative EBRT alone (P = 0.23). Four pts had pathologic lymph node involvement, three pts had vaginal residual tumour, and four pts had pathologic parametrial invasion. The 2- and 5-year overall survival rates were 85% and 74%, respectively. The 2- and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 80% and 71%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the pathologic residual cervical tumour size was the single independent factor decreasing the probability of DFS (P = 0.0054). The 5-year local control rate and metastatic failure rate were 90% and 83.5%, respectively. Haematological effects were moderate. However, six pts had grade 3 acute intestinal toxicity. Four severe late complications requiring surgical intervention were observed (one small bowel complication, three ureteral complications).Conclusion. – Primary concomitant chemoradiation followed surgery for bulky operable stage I–II cervical carcinomas can be employed with acceptable toxicity. However, systematic preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy should increase local tumour control.Cancer Radiotherapie - CANCER RADIOTHER. 01/2004; 8(3):168-177.