Center for Animal Biotechnology and Genomics, Albert B. Alkek Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, and Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.
The objective of this study was to generate immortalized endometrial epithelial and stromal cell lines from the ovine uterus. Luminal (LE) and glandular epithelial (GE) cells and stromal (ST) cells were enzymatically isolated from the uterus of a Day 5 cyclic ewe (estrus on Day 0), and primary cultures were immortalized by transduction with a retroviral vector (LXSN-16E6E7) packaged by the amphotropic fibroblast line PA-317. Cells having integrated the vector were selected by resistance to the neomycin analogue G418 (0.6-0.8 mg/ml). Surviving cells were maintained in complete culture medium containing G418 (0.1 mg/ml) and subcultured for more than 40 passages. Phase-contrast microscopy revealed that LE and GE cells exhibited a cobblestone morphology whereas immortalized ST cells were spindle shaped. The epithelial origin of LE and GE was confirmed by positive cytokeratin immunostaining, and ST cells were vimentin positive. All cell lines were negative for smooth muscle alpha-actin staining. Western blot analyses of cell extracts revealed the presence of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins 1, 2, and 3. In the LE cells, interferon tau (IFNtau) induced nuclear translocation of STAT proteins 1 and 2 and up-regulated several IFN-inducible genes, including STATs 1, 2, and 3 and ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP/ISG17). In the LE cell line, IFN regulatory factor one was transiently up-regulated and then down-regulated by IFNtau. Immunostaining revealed the presence of nuclear estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor in all cell lines. These ovine endometrial cell lines provide useful in vitro model systems for the study of hormone and cytokine action, signal transduction pathways, cell-cell interactions, and gene expression in specific cell types of the ovine endometrium.
"We used the ovine immortalized endometrial luminal epithelial (LE) cells and stromal (STR) cells to determine IFNT signaling. These LE and STR cells expressed IFNT receptors IFNR1 and IFNR2 and responded to IFNT treatment (Chen et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 1999; Stewart et al., 2001). The LE and STR cells were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium: Nutrient Mixture F-12 (DMEM/ F12) medium containing 5% dextran charcoal treated fetal bovine serum (DC-FBS) and 100 U penicillin/ml, 100 lg streptomycin/ml and 2.5 lg amphotericin B/ml in humidified 5% CO 2 and 95% air at 37 °C. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) plays pleiotropic roles at fetal-maternal interface during establishment of pregnancy. The objectives of the study were to: (i) determine regulation of PGE2 receptors EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 in the endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy; and (ii) understand endometrial epithelial and stromal cell-specific hormonal regulation of EP2 and EP4 in sheep. Results indicate that: (i) early pregnancy induces expression of EP2 and EP4 but not EP1 and EP3 proteins in the endometrium on days 12-16 compared to that of estrous cycle; (ii) intrauterine infusion of interferon tau (IFNT) increases expression of EP2 and EP4 proteins in endometrium; and (iii) IFNT activates distinct epithelial and stromal cell-specific JAK, EGFR, ERK1/2, AKT, or JNK signaling module to regulate expression of EP2 and EP4 proteins in the ovine endometrium. Our results indicate a role for EP2 and EP4-mediated PGE(2) signaling in endometrial functions and establishment of pregnancy in ruminants.
"To validate our results from the multiple microarray analyses, we performed real-time PCR experiments on five selected genes. ISG15 was chosen as a positive control for validating the experimental procedure because it has been previously shown to be up-regulated by IFNT in ovine LE cells (Johnson et al. 1999c). We selected PTGS2, IGF2, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1a subunit (HIF1A), because we had previously demonstrated these genes to be down-regulated in endometrium from ewes that were either pregnant or, alternatively, treated with IFNT (Chen et al. 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-tau (IFNT) is released by preimplantation conceptuses of ruminant species and prepares the mother for pregnancy. Although one important function is to protect the corpus luteum from the luteolytic activity of prostaglandin-F 2alpha, IFNT most likely regulates a range of other physiological processes in endometrium. Here, an immortalized cell line from ovine uterine luminal epithelial cells was treated with IFNT for either 8 or 24 h. RNA was subjected to cDNA microarray analysis, with RNA from untreated cells as the reference standard. Of 15 634 genes, 1274 (8%) were IFNT responsive at P<0.01 and 585 at P<0.001 to at least one treatment. Of the latter, 356 were up-regulated and 229 down-regulated. Increasing IFNT concentrations from 10 ng/ml to 10 microg/ml had minor effects, and most genes up- or down-regulated at 8 h were regulated similarly at 24 h. Although IFNT influences many genes implicated in antiviral activity and apoptosis, its action also likely regulates prostaglandin metabolism, growth factors and their receptors, apoptosis and the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB cascade, extracellular matrix accretion, angiogenesis, blood coagulation, and inflammation. In particular, it increased mRNA concentrations of genes related to the vascular endothelial growth factor R2 pathway of angiogenesis and down-regulated ones associated with hypoxia. Two genes implicated in the antiluteolytic actions of IFNT (encoding cyclooxygenase-2 and the oxytocin receptor respectively) were down-regulated in response to all treatments. IFNT targets a complex range of physiological processes during the establishment of pregnancy.
"Immortalized ovine uterine endometrial LE cells were cultured as described previously (Johnson et al. 1999c). Bovine endometrial (BEND) cells (Johnson et al. 1999a) were kindly provided by Dr Thomas R Hansen (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 (RSAD2) encodes a cytoplasmic antiviral protein induced by interferons (IFN). Interferon-induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) is a RNA helicase involved in innate immune defense against viruses, growth suppression, and apoptosis. Interferon tau (IFNT), a Type I IFN produced by the peri-implantation ruminant conceptus, acts on the uterine endometrium to signal pregnancy recognition and promote receptivity to implantation. Transcriptional profiling identified RSAD2 and IFIH1 as IFNT regulated genes in the ovine uterine endometrium. This study tested the hypothesis that RSAD2 and IFIH1 were induced in the endometrium in a cell type-specific manner by IFNT from the conceptus during early pregnancy. Endometrial RSAD2 and IFIH1 mRNA increased between days 12 and 16 of pregnancy, but not of the estrous cycle. In pregnant ewes, RSAD2 and IFIH1 mRNAs increased in endometrial glands, and stroma and immune cells, but not in the luminal epithelium. Neither gene was expressed in the trophectoderm of day 18 or 20 conceptuses. Progesterone (P4) treatment of ovariectomized ewes did not induce expression RSAD2 or IFIH1 mRNA in the endometrium; however, intrauterine injections of IFNT induced expression of RSAD2 and IFIH1 mRNA in endometria of ewes treated with P4, as well as in ewes treated with P4 and the progesterone receptor antagonist, ZK 136,317. These results indicate that conceptus IFNT induces both RSAD2 and IFIH1 in a P4-independent manner in the ovine uterine endometrium. These two IFNT-stimulated genes are proposed to have biological roles in the establishment of uterine receptivity to the conceptus during implantation through induction of an antiviral state and modulation of local immune cells in the endometrium.
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