Executive functions and speed of mental processing in elderly patients with frontal or nonfrontal ischemic stroke.
ABSTRACT Impairments in executive functions have been related to aging and frontal lobe lesions. Aging also causes slowing of mental processing. We examined whether ischemic stroke in the frontal brain area results in dysexecutive syndrome, or whether the frontal stroke causes increased slowing of mental processing. Neurological, radiological and neuropsychological examinations were carried out 3 months post-stroke on 250 ischemic stroke patients (55-85 years) and on 39 healthy control subjects. Of the patients, 62 had frontal and 188 had nonfrontal lesions. The neuropsychological examination comprised several cognitive domains, including tests considered to measure executive functions. The frontal group was slower than the nonfrontal group in tasks measuring speed of mental processing which were time-limited (Trail Making A, Stroop dots and fluency). They were also inferior in the Digit Span backwards task. There were no differences between the groups in other cognitive domains, nor in some tests which are considered to be measures of executive functions (e.g. WCST). Impairments in executive functions were evident in both the frontal and the nonfrontal groups compared with the controls, but no dysexecutive syndrome specifically related to frontal lesions was found. Frontal stroke related mainly to the slowing of mental processing.
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ABSTRACT: A well-documented phenomenon in event-related electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies on language processing is that syntactic violations of different types elicit negativities as early as 100 msec after the violation point. Recently, these responses have been associated with activations in or very close to sensory cortices, suggesting the involvement of basic sensory mechanisms in the detection of syntactic violations. The present study investigated whether intact auditory cortices and adjacent temporal regions are sufficient to generate early syntactic negativities in the auditory event-related potential (ERP). We tested ten clinically non-aphasic patients with left inferior frontal lesions, but intact temporal cortices in a passive auditory ERP paradigm that had reliably elicited early negativities in response to violations of subject-verb agreement and word category in the past. Subject-verb agreement violations failed to elicit early grammaticality effects in these patients, whereas a group of ten age-matched controls showed a reliable early negativity. This finding supports the idea that sensory aspects of syntactic analysis as reflected in early syntactic negativities critically depend on top-down predictions generated by the left inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, word category violations elicited a small, marginally significant early negativity both in controls and patients, suggesting an additional involvement of temporal regions in early phrase structure processing. In an additional auditory oddball experiment patients showed a regular P300, but no N2b component in response to deviant tones, indicating that their deficit in generating sensory predictions extends beyond the language domain.Cortex 06/2013; · 6.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rate at which people process information appears to influence many aspects of cognition across the lifespan. However, many commonly accepted measures of 'processing speed' may require goal maintenance, manipulation of information in working memory, and decision-making, blurring the distinction between processing speed and executive control and resulting in overestimation of processing speed contributions to cognition. This concern may apply particularly to studies of developmental change, as even seemingly simple processing speed measures may require executive processes to keep children and older adults on task. We report two new studies and a re-analysis of a published study, testing predictions about how different processing speed measures influence conclusions about executive control across the lifespan. We find that the choice of processing speed measure affects the relationship observed between processing speed and executive control, in a manner that changes with age, and that choice of processing speed measure affects conclusions about development and the relationship among executive control measures. Implications for understanding processing speed, executive control, and their development are discussed.Developmental Science 03/2013; 16(2):269-86. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Language has been extensively investigated by functional neuroimaging studies. However, only a limited number of structural neuroimaging studies have examined the relationship between language performance and brain structure in healthy adults, and the number is even less in older adults. The present study sought to investigate correlations between grey matter volumes and three standardized language tests in late life. The participants were 344 non-demented, community-dwelling adults aged 70-90 years, who were drawn from the population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. The three language tests included the Controlled Oral Word Association Task (COWAT), Category Fluency (CF), and Boston Naming Test (BNT). Correlation analyses between voxel-wise GM volumes and language tests showed distinctive GM correlation patterns for each language test. The GM correlates were located in the right frontal and left temporal lobes for COWAT, in the left frontal and temporal lobes for CF, and in bilateral temporal lobes for BNT. Our findings largely corresponded to the neural substrates of language tasks revealed in fMRI studies, and we also observed a less hemispheric asymmetry in the GM correlates of the language tests. Furthermore, we divided the participants into two age groups (70-79 and 80-90 years old), and then examined the correlations between structural laterality indices and language performance for each group. A trend toward significant difference in the correlations was found between the two age groups, with stronger correlations in the group of 70-79 years old than those in the group of 80-90 years old. This difference might suggest a further decline of language lateralization in different stages of late life.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80215. · 3.53 Impact Factor