A conserved inositol phospholipid binding site within the pleckstrin homology domain of the Gab1 docking protein is required for epithelial morphogenesis.
ABSTRACT Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces the inherent morphogenic program of epithelial cells. The multisubstrate binding protein Gab1 (Grb2-associated binder-1) is the major phosphorylated protein in epithelial cells following activation of Met. Gab1 contains a pleckstrin homology domain and multiple tyrosine residues that act to couple Met with multiple signaling proteins. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce a morphogenic program in epithelial cells, which is rescued by overexpression of Gab1. The Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain binds to phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate and contains conserved residues, shown from studies of other pleckstrin homology domains to be crucial for phospholipid binding. Mutation of conserved phospholipid binding residues tryptophan 26 and arginine 29, generates Gab1 proteins with decreased phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate binding, decreased localization at sites of cell-cell contact, and reduced ability to rescue Met-dependent morphogenesis. We conclude that the ability of the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain to bind phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate is critical for subcellular localization of Gab1 and for efficient morphogenesis downstream from the Met receptor.
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ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy remains an imperative treatment modality for numerous malignancies. Enduring significant technical achievements both on the levels of treatment planning and radiation delivery have led to improvements in local control of tumor growth and reduction in healthy tissue toxicity. Nevertheless, resistance mechanisms, which presumably also involve activation of DNA damage response signaling pathways that eventually may account for loco-regional relapse and consequent tumor progression, still remain a critical problem. Accumulating data suggest that signaling via growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, which are aberrantly expressed in many tumors, may interfere with the cytotoxic impact of ionizing radiation via the direct activation of the DNA damage response, leading eventually to so-called tumor radioresistance. The aim of this review is to overview the current known data that support a molecular crosstalk between the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase MET and the DNA damage response. Apart of extending well established concepts over MET biology beyond its function as a growth factor receptor, these observations directly relate to the role of its aberrant activity in resistance to DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation, which are routinely used in cancer therapy and advocate tumor sensitization towards DNA damaging agents in combination with MET targeting.Cancers. 01/2013; 6(1):1-27.
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ABSTRACT: Most, if not all, cytokines activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K). Although many cytokine receptors have direct binding sites for the p85 subunit of PI-3K, others, such as the interleukin-3 (IL-3) receptor beta common chain (bc) and the IL-2 receptor beta chain (IL-2Rb), lack such sites, leaving the mechanism by which they activate PI-3K unclear. Here, we show that the protooncoprotein Shc, which promotes Ras activation by recruiting the Grb2-Sos complex in response to stimulation of cytokine stimulation, also signals to the PI-3K/Akt pathway. Analysis of Y3F and "add-back" mutants of bc shows that Y577, the Shc binding site, is the major site required for Gab2 phosphorylation in response to cytokine stimulation. When fused directly to a mutant form of IL-2Rb that lacks other cytoplasmic tyrosines, Shc can promote Gab2 tyrosyl phosphory- lation. Mutation of the three tyrosyl phosphorylation sites of Shc, which bind Grb2, blocks the ability of the Shc chimera to evoke Gab2 tyrosyl phosphorylation. Overexpression of mutants of Grb2 with inactive SH2 or SH3 domains also blocks cytokine-stimulated Gab2 phosphorylation. The majority of cytokine-stimulated PI-3K activity associates with Gab2, and inducible expression of a Gab2 mutant unable to bind PI-3K markedly impairs IL-3-induced Akt activation and cell growth. Experiments with the chimeric receptors indicate that Shc also signals to the PI-3K/Akt pathway in response to IL-2. Our results suggest that cytokine receptors lacking direct PI-3K binding sites activate Akt via a Shc/Grb2/Gab2/PI-3K pathway, thereby regulating cell survival and/or proliferation.Molecular and Cellular Biology - MOL CELL BIOL. 01/2000; 20(19):7109-7120.