A conserved inositol phospholipid binding site within the pleckstrin homology domain of the Gab1 docking protein is required for epithelial morphogenesis.
ABSTRACT Stimulation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, Met, induces the inherent morphogenic program of epithelial cells. The multisubstrate binding protein Gab1 (Grb2-associated binder-1) is the major phosphorylated protein in epithelial cells following activation of Met. Gab1 contains a pleckstrin homology domain and multiple tyrosine residues that act to couple Met with multiple signaling proteins. Met receptor mutants that are impaired in their association with Gab1 fail to induce a morphogenic program in epithelial cells, which is rescued by overexpression of Gab1. The Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain binds to phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate and contains conserved residues, shown from studies of other pleckstrin homology domains to be crucial for phospholipid binding. Mutation of conserved phospholipid binding residues tryptophan 26 and arginine 29, generates Gab1 proteins with decreased phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate binding, decreased localization at sites of cell-cell contact, and reduced ability to rescue Met-dependent morphogenesis. We conclude that the ability of the Gab1 pleckstrin homology domain to bind phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate is critical for subcellular localization of Gab1 and for efficient morphogenesis downstream from the Met receptor.
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ABSTRACT: The docking proteins of the Grb2-associated binder (Gab) family have emerged as crucial signaling compartments in metazoans. In mammals, the Gab proteins, consisting of Gab1, Gab2, and Gab3, are involved in the amplification and integration of signal transduction evoked by a variety of extracellular stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, antigens, and other molecules. Gab proteins lack the enzymatic activity themselves; however, when phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, they provide binding sites for multiple Src homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins, such as SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85, phospholipase Cγ, Crk, and GC-GAP. Through these interactions, the Gab proteins transduce signals from activated receptors into pathways with distinct biological functions, thereby contributing to signal diversification. They are known to play crucial roles in numerous physiological processes through their associations with SHP2 and p85. In addition, abnormal Gab protein signaling has been linked to human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders. In this paper, we provide an overview of the structure, effector functions, and regulation of the Gab docking proteins, with a special focus on their associations with cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammation.International journal of inflammation. 01/2013; 2013:141068.
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ABSTRACT: The GRB2-associated binder 1 (GAB1) docking/scaffold protein is a key mediator of the MET-tyrosine kinase receptor activated by hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF). Activated MET promotes recruitment and tyrosine phosphorylation of GAB1, which in turn recruits multiple proteins and mediates MET signaling leading to cell survival, motility, and morphogenesis. We previously reported that, without its ligand, MET is a functional caspase target during apoptosis, allowing the generation of a p40-MET fragment that amplifies apoptosis. In this study we established that GAB1 is also a functional caspase target by evidencing a caspase-cleaved p35-GAB1 fragment that contains the MET binding domain. GAB1 is cleaved by caspases before MET, and the resulting p35-GAB1 fragment is phosphorylated by MET upon HGF/SF binding and can interact with a subset of GAB1 partners, PI3K, and GRB2 but not with SHP2. This p35-GAB1 fragment favors cell survival by maintaining HGF/SF-induced MET activation of AKT and by hindering p40-MET pro-apoptotic function. These data demonstrate an anti-apoptotic role of caspase-cleaved GAB1 in HGF/SF-MET signaling.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2012; 287(42):35382-96. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy remains an imperative treatment modality for numerous malignancies. Enduring significant technical achievements both on the levels of treatment planning and radiation delivery have led to improvements in local control of tumor growth and reduction in healthy tissue toxicity. Nevertheless, resistance mechanisms, which presumably also involve activation of DNA damage response signaling pathways that eventually may account for loco-regional relapse and consequent tumor progression, still remain a critical problem. Accumulating data suggest that signaling via growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, which are aberrantly expressed in many tumors, may interfere with the cytotoxic impact of ionizing radiation via the direct activation of the DNA damage response, leading eventually to so-called tumor radioresistance. The aim of this review is to overview the current known data that support a molecular crosstalk between the hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase MET and the DNA damage response. Apart of extending well established concepts over MET biology beyond its function as a growth factor receptor, these observations directly relate to the role of its aberrant activity in resistance to DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation, which are routinely used in cancer therapy and advocate tumor sensitization towards DNA damaging agents in combination with MET targeting.Cancers. 01/2013; 6(1):1-27.