Minor and major depression and the risk of death in older persons.
ABSTRACT The association between depression and mortality in older community-dwelling populations is still unresolved. This study determined the effect of both minor and major depression on mortality and examined the role of confounding and explanatory variables on this relationship.
A cohort of 3056 men and women from the Netherlands aged 55 to 85 years were followed up for 4 years. Major depression was defined according to DSM-III criteria by means of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Minor depression was defined as clinically relevant depression (defined by a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score > or = 16) not fulfilling diagnostic criteria for major depression.
After adjustment for confounding variables (sociodemographics, health status), men with minor depression had a 1.80-fold higher risk of death (95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.39) during follow-up than nondepressed men. In women, minor depression did not significantly increase the mortality risk. Irrespective of sex, major depression was associated with a 1.83-fold higher mortality risk (95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.10) after adjustment for sociodemographics and health status. Health behaviors such as smoking and physical inactivity explained only a small part of the excess mortality risk associated with depression.
Even after adjustment for sociodemographics, health status, and health behaviors, minor depression in older men and major depression in both older men and women increase the risk of dying.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether transitioning into the role of activities of daily living (ADL) spousal caregiver is associated with increased depressive symptoms for older husbands and wives among a sample of coresiding community-dwelling older couples. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we estimated a two-level linear model to examine the association between change in caregiver status and respondents' depressive symptoms at follow-up, controlling for other factors identified in Pearlin's stress process model (PSPM). Results indicate that both husbands and wives who become ADL caregivers have more follow-up depressive symptoms than noncaregivers. Furthermore, wives continuing as caregivers have more follow-up depressive symptoms than wives who do not provide care. Finally, the physical health of the spousal caregiver is related to depressive symptoms at follow-up. We conclude with policy and practice implications of these three main findings. © The Author(s) 2013.Research on Aging 11/2014; 36(6):655-82. DOI:10.1177/0164027513516152 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to examine perceptions of the helpfulness of treatments/interventions for depression held by elderly care recipients, to examine whether these beliefs are related to help-seeking and whether the experience of depression affects beliefs about treatment seeking, and to identify the characteristics of help-seekers. One hundred eighteen aged care recipients were surveyed on their beliefs about the helpfulness of a variety of treatments/interventions for depression, on their actual help-seeking behaviors, and on their experience of depression (current and past). From the sample, 32.4% of the participants screened positive for depression on the Geriatric Depression Scale, and of these, 24.2% reported receiving treatment. Respondents believed the most helpful treatments for depression were increasing physical activity, counseling, and antidepressant medication. Help-seeking from both professional and informal sources appeared to be related to belief in the helpfulness of counseling and antidepressants; in addition, help-seeking from informal sources was also related to belief in the helpfulness of sleeping tablets and reading self-help books. In univariate analyses, lower levels of cognitive impairment and being in the two lower age tertiles predicted a greater likelihood of help-seeking from professional sources, and female sex and being in the lower two age tertiles predicted greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. In multivariate analyses, only lower levels of cognitive impairment remained a significant predictor of help-seeking from professional sources, whereas both lower age and female sex continued to predict a greater likelihood of help-seeking from informal sources. Beliefs in the helpfulness of certain treatments were related to the use of both professional and informal sources of help, indicating the possibility that campaigns or educational programs aimed at changing beliefs about treatments may be useful in older adults.Clinical Interventions in Aging 01/2015; 10:287-95. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S70086 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resumo Introdução: A depressão é uma condição presente em 20% dos portadores de doenças crônicas, estando associada à incapacitação funcional e comprometimento da saúde física. A doença renal crônica faz parte desse escopo, com prevalência de 405 pacientes por milhão de habitantes submetidos a hemodiálise no Brasil. Objetiva-se avaliar prevalência de sintomatologia depressiva e suas carac-terísticas em pacientes sob tratamento dialítico. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado entre junho e agosto de 2010, incluindo os pacientes submetidos a hemodiálise no Hospital Geral de Caxias do Sul, que preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Procedeu-se a aplicação de instrumentos de coleta de dados. O ponto de corte para depressão foi de 16 pontos no Inventário de Depressão de Beck. O estudo foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: A amostra foi constituída por 64 pacientes. A média de idade foi de 53,66 ± 15,82 anos; 51,7% eram do sexo feminino. A prevalência de depressão foi de 44,8%. Os pacientes com IDB < 16 apre-sentaram escore médio de 7,23 ± 3,5; já aqueles com IDB > 16 apresentaram média de 26,43 ± 9,35 (p < 0,001). Os pacientes que necessitavam cuidador apresentaram maiores índices de depressão (p< 0,001). Nos pacientes com IDB > 16 os fatores mais influentes foram sono, cansaço e incapacidade de tomar decisões. Conclusão: A prevalência de depressão nos pacientes em hemodiálise é alta. Os pacientes que necessitam de cuidadores apresentam maior escore no IDB. Alterações do sono, cansaço e incapacidade de tomar decisões são os principais fatores para o humor depressivo. UnItErMOS: Epidemiologia, nefrologia, Psiquiatria, Doença renal Crônica. abstRact Introduction: Depression is a condition present in 20% of patients with chronic diseases and is associated with functional disability and impaired physical health. Chronic kidney disease is part of this scope, with an estimated prevalence of 405 patients per million undergoing hemodialysis in Brazil. The objec-tive of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their characteristics in patients on dialysis. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted between June and August 2010, including patients undergoing hemodialysis at the General Hospital of Caxias do Sul, who met the inclusion criteria. The data collection instruments (questionnaire, Mini Mental State Examination and the Beck Depression Inventory–BDI) were administered individually during a hemodialysis session. The cut-off point for depression was 16 points in the BDI. Results: We studied 64 patients. The mean age was 53.66 ± 15.82 years, 51.7% were females. The prevalence of depression was 44.8. Patients with BDI<16 had a mean score of 7.23 ± 3.5, whereas those with BDI>16 had an average of 26.43 ± 9.35 (p <0.001). Patients who needed caregivers had higher levels of depression (p <0.001). In patients with BDI>16, the most influent factors were sleep, fatigue and inability to make decisions. Conclusion: The prevalence of depression in hemodialysis patients is high. Patients who need caregivers had higher scores on the BDI. Sleep disorders, fatigue and inability to make decisions are the main factors for depressed mood.