KIT protein expression and analysis of c-kit gene mutation in adenoid cystic carcinoma.
ABSTRACT The c-kit proto-oncogene encodes a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT), which is expressed in several normal human tissues, especially mast cells and interstitial cells of Cajal. Expression of KIT has been noted in several types of neoplasms and gene mutation has been shown as a mechanism of c-kit oncogene activation in some tumors. Recently, a single adnexal adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) was reported to demonstrate KIT expression, however, examination of KIT expression or c-kit mutation in ACC of salivary glands has not been performed. We examined archival tissue samples from 30 ACC of major and minor salivary glands for KIT protein expression by immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody and c-kit gene mutation by polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing. KIT protein expression was noted in 90% of ACCs. An association between the presence of at least 50% KIT positive neoplastic cells and Grade 3 ACC or a solid growth pattern was observed (P < .05). KIT expression in normal or nonneoplastic salivary gland tissue was absent. No c-kit juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) or phosphotransferase domain (exon 17) mutations were found in any of the tumors examined. In conclusion, KIT protein expression is correlated with tumor grade of salivary ACC. However, gene mutation of exon 11 or exon 17 is not a mechanism of c-kit activation in these neoplasms.
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ABSTRACT: This article provides an update on the current understanding of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck, including a review of its epidemiology, clinical behavior, pathology, molecular biology, diagnostic workup, treatment and prognosis. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is an uncommon salivary gland tumor that may arise in a wide variety of anatomical sites in the head and neck, often with an advanced stage at diagnosis. The clinical course is characterized by very late recurrences; consequently, clinical follow-up should extend at least >15years. The optimal treatment is generally considered to be surgery with postoperative radiotherapy to optimize local disease control. Much effort has been invested into understanding the tumor's molecular biological processes, aiming to identify patients at high risk of recurrence, in hopes that they could benefit from other, still unproven treatment modalities such as chemotherapy or biological therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2015.04.005
- Sex Steroids, 01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-857-1
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ABSTRACT: Malignant salivary gland tumors (MSGTs) account for 2-6% of all head and neck cancers. Despite the rarity, MSGTs have been of great interest due to a wide variety of pathological features and high metastasis rates resulting in poor prognosis. Surgical resection followed by radiation therapy represents the main treatment of this malignancy. Adjuvant therapy is reserved for the management of local recurrence, no longer amenable to additional local therapy, and for metastasis. Based on the studies from other types of tumors, particularly breast cancer, the expression and function of sex steroid hormone receptors in cancer have been extensively studied and applied to diagnosis and treatment. Although a number of studies in MSGTs have been published, the rationale for hormone therapy is still controversial due to the disparate results and insufficient number of cases. However, some recent reports have demonstrated that certain salivary gland neoplasms are similar to breast cancer, not only in terms of the pathological features, but also at the molecular level. Here, we shed light on the biological similarity between MSGTs and certain types of breast cancer, and describe the potential use of hormone and additional therapies for MSGTs.International Journal of Otolaryngology 11/2011; 2011(1687-9201):187623. DOI:10.1155/2011/187623