Development of the EURO-D Scale – A European, Union Initiative to Compare Symptoms of Depression in 14 European Centers

Department of Psychiatry, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 05/1999; 174(4):330-8. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.174.4.330
Source: PubMed


In an 11-country European collaboration, 14 population-based surveys included 21,724 subjects aged > or = 65 years. Most participating centres used the Geriatric Mental State (GMS), but other measures were also used.
To derive from these instruments a common depression symptoms scale, the EURO-D, to allow comparison of risk factor profiles between centres.
Common items were identified from the instruments. Algorithms for fitting items to GMS were derived by observation of item correspondence or expert opinion. The resulting 12-item scale was checked for internal consistency, criterion validity and uniformity of factor-analytic profile.
The EURO-D is internally consistent, capturing the essence of its parent instrument. A two-factor solution seemed appropriate: depression, tearfulness and wishing to die loaded on the first factor (affective suffering), and loss of interest, poor concentration and lack of enjoyment on the second (motivation).
The EURO-D scale should permit valid comparison of risk-factor associations between centres, even if between-centre variation remains difficult to attribute.

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Available from: Brian A Lawlor, Dec 20, 2013
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    • "The first three response options were collated into the category 'good health' and the other two options into the category 'poor health'. Mental health was measured by the EURO-D scale for depression (Prince et al., 1999). The EURO-D scale consisted of twelve items, which were " depressed mood " , " pessimism " , " suicidality " , " guilt " , " sleep " , " interest " , " irritability " , " appetite " , " fatigue " , " concentration " , " enjoyment " and " tearfulness " . "
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    ABSTRACT: In Europe, the demand for informal care is high and will increase because of the ageing population. Although caregiving is intended to contribute to the care recipient's health, its effects on the health of older European caregivers are not yet clear. This study explores the association between providing informal personal care and the caregivers' health. Data were used from the longitudinal cohort (2004-2009) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)(n=7858). Generalized estimating equations were used to explore the longitudinal association of informal care and the caregiver's health using poor self-rated health (less than good), poor mental health (EURO-D score for depression ≥4), and poor physical health (≥2 health complaints). Providing informal personal care was significantly associated with poor mental health (OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.04-1.47) and poor physical health (OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.01-1.38), after adjusting for various socio-demographic and health-related factors. No statistical significant association was found for self-rated health in the adjusted models. Providing informal personal care may negative influence the caregiver's mental and physical health. More awareness of the beneficial and detrimental effects of caregiving among policy makers is needed to make well-informed decisions concerning the growth of care demands in the ageing population. Copyright © 2014 American Health Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Preventive Medicine 11/2014; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.10.028 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "In contrast with our results and previous population-based studies, the geographical patterns in the EURODEP studies are somewhat less clear and show some noteworthy deviations. For example, a low prevalence of depressive symptoms is reported in Zaragore in Spain, while the highest prevalence is found in Munich, Germany (Copeland et al., 1999, 2004; Prince et al., 1999). The question arises of whether these differences are related to the more restrictive sampling of one city center per country or whether other mechanisms are at play. "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders in later life. However, despite considerable research attention, great confusion remains regarding the association between ageing and depression. There is doubt as to whether a depression scale performs identically for different age groups and countries. Although measurement equivalence is a crucial prerequisite for valid comparisons across age groups and countries, it has not been established for the eight-item version of the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D8). Using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we assess configural, metric, and scalar measurement equivalence across two age groups (50-64 years of age and 65 or older) in eleven European countries, employing data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement (SHARE). Results indicate that the construct of depression is comparable across age and country groups, allowing the substantive interpretation of correlates and mean levels of depressive symptoms.
    Social Science Research 07/2014; 46. DOI:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2014.02.006 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    • "SHARE includes the EURO-D as a measure of subjective-well-being. The EURO-D (Prince et al. 1999) includes 12 " yes-or-no " questions about depression, pessimism, suicidality, guilt, sleep, interest, irritability, appetite, fatigue, concentration, enjoyment, and tearfulness during the last month to capture emotional health and well-being. The EURO-D is scored by summing individual items. "
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    ABSTRACT: We examine determinants of financial and subjective well-being, in particular poverty and depression, among older individuals in Europe. We do so using the 2004, 2006, and 2010 waves of the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe and estimating dynamic panel data and binary choice transition models. We find a number of common effects across financial and subjective well-being. Unemployment, disabilities, serious health conditions, lower education, being female, and not being married increase the probability of poverty or depression. Conversely, healthy individuals, those with higher levels of education, males, and married individuals have higher probabilities of exiting poverty or depression. The effect of retirement is of special policy interest. It turns out to be crucial to control for endogeneity (i.e. the possibility of reverse causality) of retirement. If we don't control for endogeneity, retirement appears to increase both the risk of poverty and of depression. Once we control for endogeneity using instrumental variables, these negative effects disappear and point to weak evidence that retirement induced through eligibility for retirement pensions may be protective against poverty and depression.
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