A case of primary torsion dystonia in Japan with the 3-bp (GAG) deletion in the DYT1 gene with a unique clinical presentation

Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan
Neurogenetics (Impact Factor: 2.88). 10/1999; 2(3):189-90. DOI: 10.1007/s100480050082
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Dystonia is a syndrome of sustained muscle spasms of presumed central nervous system origin. Recent advances in molecular biology have permitted clearer understanding of the genetics of various forms of dystonia and suggest pathophysiological deficits at the origin of the clinical signs. Treatment has involved centrally-acting drugs, specifically the anticholinergic medications, as well as peripherally acting agents that block neuromuscular transmission (botulinum toxin). Some forms of dystonia are particularly responsive to levodopa. A systematic approach to the diagnostic and treatment evaluation of dystonic patients permits optimal care for long-term management.
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    ABSTRACT: A GAG deletion at position 946 in the DYT1 gene has been identified as one of the gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant primary torsion dystonia. We examined 178 Japanese patients with various forms of dystonia, and found the mutation in six patients (3.4%) from three families. Five of them had early clinical onset (before age 12) with initial involvement of a limb. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the frequency and the clinical features of DYT1 mutation in oriental patients, and the clinical presentation of the mutation in these patients was similar to that of Jewish or non-Jewish Caucasian patients.
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    ABSTRACT: Dystonia is a syndrome characterised by sustained muscle contractions, producing twisting, repetitive, and patterned movements, or abnormal postures. The dystonic syndromes include a large group of diseases that have been classified into various aetiological categories, such as primary, dystonia-plus, heredodegenerative, and secondary. The diverse clinical features of these disorders are reflected in the traditional clinical classification based on age at onset, distribution of symptoms, and site of onset. However, with an increased awareness of the molecular and environmental causes, the classification schemes have changed to reflect different genetic forms of dystonia. To date, at least 13 dystonic syndromes have been distinguished on a genetic basis and their loci are referred to as DYT1 to DYT13. This review focuses on the molecular and phenotypic features of the hereditary dystonias, with emphasis on recent advances.
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