Longitudinal change in height of men and women: Implications for interpretation of the body mass index: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

Metabolism Section, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, Intramural Research Program, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
American Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.98). 12/1999; 150(9):969-77. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Age differences in height derived from cross-sectional studies can be the result of differential secular influences among the age cohorts. To determine the magnitude of height loss that accompanies aging, longitudinal studies are required. The authors studied 2,084 men and women aged 17-94 years enrolled from 1958 to 1993 in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, Baltimore, Maryland. On average, men's height was measured nine times during 15 years and women's height five times during 9 years. The rate of decrease in height was greater for women than for men. For both sexes, height loss began at about age 30 years and accelerated with increasing age. Cumulative height loss from age 30 to 70 years averaged about 3 cm for men and 5 cm for women; by age 80 years, it increased to 5 cm for men and 8 cm for women. This degree of height loss would account for an "artifactual" increase in body mass index of approximately 0.7 kg/m2 for men and 1.6 kg/m2 for women by age 70 years that increases to 1.4 and 2.6 kg/m2, respectively, by age 80 years. True height loss with aging must be taken into account when height (or indexes based on height) is used in physiologic or clinical studies.

Download full-text


Available from: John Sorkin, Aug 06, 2014
  • Source
    • "Several studies have shown that BMI 24 kg/m 2 marks the low estimate of the risk of malnutrition in older people (Sorkin et al., 1999; Zamboni et al., 2005). Because many older adults are likely to lose weight over time and our goal was to test a flexible and need-based intervention strategy, we admitted subjects with BMI 25 kg/m 2 . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nutrition is a key element in geriatric health. Protein-energy malnutrition is common in institutionalized persons. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effectiveness of a need-based "routine screening and timely intervention" strategy in improving the nutritional status of persons living in nursing homes. DESIGN: A 24-week randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. SETTING: A privately managed geriatric nursing home in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-two ≥65-year old persons who were ≤25kg/m(2), >1 month residence, able to self-feed or receive oral feeding, without acute infection and non-bed-ridden. METHODS: Prospective participants were stratified by gender and then randomly assigned to either the control group (n=45) or the intervention group (n=47). Each subject in the intervention group was given a 50g/day soy-protein-based nutritional supplement if he/she was rated as undernourished according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, score ≤24) and BMI ≤24kg/m(2). The supplement contained 9.5g protein, 250kcal energy and all essential micro-nutrients. The supplementation would be suspended once either one of the "at risk" condition was corrected. Nutritional rating with the MNA took place at baseline and every 4 weeks during the trial. Biochemical indicators were measured at baseline, mid-point (week-12) and end-point (week-24). Results were analyzed with the two-sample t-test, and the generalized estimating equations (GEE) controlled for demographic and health-related variables. RESULTS: Of the 92 subjects, 82 completed the trial; 7 withdrew and 3 died during the trial. Results showed that the need-based intervention was an effective and appropriate strategy for improving the nutritional status of persons at risk of undernourishment. The intervention significantly improved body weight, BMI, mid-arm circumference, calf circumference, and serum albumin and cholesterol concentrations at all intervals (all p<0.05). However, the intervention did not significantly improve hematocrit, hemoglobin or lymphocyte count status. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the need-based nutritional intervention can be a practical and useful strategy for improving the nutritional status of persons living in nursing homes and save on healthcare cost. The potential application of this strategy deserves the attention of health planners.
    International journal of nursing studies 05/2013; 50(12). DOI:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2013.04.004 · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "On the basis of the data from their own sample (Trotter and Gleser, 1951), Trotter and Gleser (1952) recommended reducing stature estimates by 0.06 cm/year after 30 years to account for age-related changes. In fact, reductions in stature with aging are more complex than this, following a quadratic curve that is steeper among women (Cline et al., 1989; Chandler and Bock, 1991; Sorkin et al., 1999a,b). Whether any age correction should be applied to estimates derived from formulae based on anatomical reconstructions of stature, like those of the present study, is debatable (Raxter et al., 2008; Vercellotti et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Techniques that are currently available for estimating stature and body mass from European skeletal remains are all subject to various limitations. Here, we develop new prediction equations based on large skeletal samples representing much of the continent and temporal periods ranging from the Mesolithic to the 20th century. Anatomical reconstruction of stature is carried out for 501 individuals, and body mass is calculated from estimated stature and biiliac breadth in 1,145 individuals. These data are used to derive stature estimation formulae based on long bone lengths and body mass estimation formulae based on femoral head breadth. Prediction accuracy is superior to that of previously available methods. No systematic geographic or temporal variation in prediction errors is apparent, except in tibial estimation of stature, where northern and southern European formulae are necessary because of the presence of relatively longer tibiae in southern samples. Thus, these equations should bebroadly applicable to European Holocene skeletal samples.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 08/2012; 148(4):601-17. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.22087 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "A perceptible decrease in height after maturity was reported by a number of previous studies (Hussain, 1997; Rahman et al., 1998; Perissinotto et al., 2002; Sánchez-García et al., 2007; Kaur, 2008). In the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging, Sorkin et al. (1999) observed that height loss began at about age 30 years and accelerated with increasing age. Consistent with those findings, in the present study, maximum mean value of height was reported at the age of 40–45 years in both the rural and urban Jat females, thereafter a declining trend with advancing age was noticed. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to describe and compare age related changes in body composition and fat patterning among rural and urban Jat females of Haryana State, India. A total of 600 females (rural=300, urban=300), ranging in age from 40 to 70 years were selected by the purposive sampling method. Body weight, height, two circumferences (waist and hip) and skinfold thickness at five different sites (biceps, triceps, calf, subscapular, and supra-iliac) were taken on each participant. To study total adiposity, indices such as body mass index (BMI), grand mean thickness (GMT), total body fat and percentage fat were analyzed statistically. The fat distribution pattern was studied using waist/hip ratio, subscapular/triceps ratio and responsiveness of five skinfold sites towards accumulation of fat at different sites with advancing age. Results indicate a decline in almost every dimension including level of fatness between the mid-fourth and mid-fifth decades of life in both rural and urban females. Urban Jat females were heavier (57.36 kg vs. 56.07 kg, p>0.05) and significantly taller (1553.3mm vs. 1534.5mm, p<0.001) than their rural counterparts. Urban females also exhibited higher mean values for both the circumferences, five skinfold thicknesses as well as for lean body mass, total fat and percentage fat than the rural females. This is also evident from their higher mean values for body mass index and grand mean thickness. Waist/hip ratio values in rural and urban females showed upper body fat predominance, with urban females having relatively more abdominal fat. Results of subscapular/triceps ratio showed that rural and urban females gained proportionally similar amounts of subcutaneous fat at trunk and extremity sites until 45 years of age. Subsequently trunk skinfolds increased relatively more in thickness. The magnitude of this increase was comparatively greater in rural females up to 55 years and among urban females from 55 to 70 years. The profiles of subcutaneous fat accumulation and sensitivity of each skinfold site also revealed more fat deposition in the trunk region compared to extremities in both rural and urban females. The present study demonstrated differential rates of fat redistribution among rural and urban females.
    Homo: internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen 09/2011; 62(5):374-85. DOI:10.1016/j.jchb.2010.05.004 · 0.96 Impact Factor
Show more

Similar Publications