Article

Childhood-onset schizophrenia: a follow-up study

UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1759, USA.
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.55). 02/1999; 8 Suppl 1(Suppl1):I9-12. DOI: 10.1007/PL00010685
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This paper presents results from the UCLA Follow-Up Study of Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders. Eighteen children with schizophrenia (SZ) were assessed 1 to 7 years following initial project intake. Results demonstrated significant continuity between SZ spectrum disorders in childhood and adolescence. Although not all children who presented initially with SZ continued to meet criteria for SZ spectrum disorder as they progressed through the follow-up period, rates of SZ spectrum disorders ranged from 78-89% across the first three follow-up years. Rates of continuing SZ ranged from 67% to 78% across the three follow-up years and rates of schizoaffective disorder ranged from 11% to 13% across the three follow-up years. Variability in levels of functioning were observed with 45% of the sample showing deteriorating course or minimal improvement and 55% of the sample showing moderate improvement or good outcomes. This variability in outcome is comparable to that seen in adults with SZ, suggesting that with current treatments childhood-onset does not ensure a more severe disorder.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Joan Asarnow, Jul 28, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
106 Views
  • Source
    • ": They are both considered as developmental psychiatric disorders invol - ving psychotic symptoms with impairments in the same main behavioral domains ( especially in communication and social inter - actions ) . Communication impairments are reported in autistic dis - order as well as in early - onset schizophrenia ( Alaghband - Rad et al . 1995 ; Asarnow et al . 1994 ; Baum et al . 1995 ; Cantor et al . 1982 ) . Thus , impairments in verbal communication ( delay in the develop - ment of spoken language , poor or disorganized speech ) and non - verbal communication ( reduced facial expression or body language ; poor eye contact ; and abnormal emotional expression such as flat , bizarre , or inappropr"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We argue that autism and psychosis spectrum disorders cannot be conceptualized as polar extremes of mentalizing ability. We raise two main objections: (1) the autistic-psychotic continuum, as conceptualized by the authors, excludes defining features of schizophrenia spectrum: negative symptoms, which correlate more strongly with mentalizing impairments; and (2) little evidence exists for a relationship between mentalizing ability and positive symptoms.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 07/2008; 31(3):277-278. DOI:10.1017/S0140525X0800438X · 14.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • ": They are both considered as developmental psychiatric disorders invol - ving psychotic symptoms with impairments in the same main behavioral domains ( especially in communication and social inter - actions ) . Communication impairments are reported in autistic dis - order as well as in early - onset schizophrenia ( Alaghband - Rad et al . 1995 ; Asarnow et al . 1994 ; Baum et al . 1995 ; Cantor et al . 1982 ) . Thus , impairments in verbal communication ( delay in the develop - ment of spoken language , poor or disorganized speech ) and non - verbal communication ( reduced facial expression or body language ; poor eye contact ; and abnormal emotional expression such as flat , bizarre , or inappropr"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autistic-spectrum conditions and psychotic-spectrum conditions (mainly schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression) represent two major suites of disorders of human cognition, affect, and behavior that involve altered development and function of the social brain. We describe evidence that a large set of phenotypic traits exhibit diametrically opposite phenotypes in autistic-spectrum versus psychotic-spectrum conditions, with a focus on schizophrenia. This suite of traits is inter-correlated, in that autism involves a general pattern of constrained overgrowth, whereas schizophrenia involves undergrowth. These disorders also exhibit diametric patterns for traits related to social brain development, including aspects of gaze, agency, social cognition, local versus global processing, language, and behavior. Social cognition is thus underdeveloped in autistic-spectrum conditions and hyper-developed on the psychotic spectrum.;>We propose and evaluate a novel hypothesis that may help to explain these diametric phenotypes: that the development of these two sets of conditions is mediated in part by alterations of genomic imprinting. Evidence regarding the genetic, physiological, neurological, and psychological underpinnings of psychotic-spectrum conditions supports the hypothesis that the etiologies of these conditions involve biases towards increased relative effects from imprinted genes with maternal expression, which engender a general pattern of undergrowth. By contrast, autistic-spectrum conditions appear to involve increased relative bias towards effects of paternally expressed genes, which mediate overgrowth. This hypothesis provides a simple yet comprehensive theory, grounded in evolutionary biology and genetics, for understanding the causes and phenotypes of autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 06/2008; 31(3):241-61; discussion 261-320. DOI:10.1017/S0140525X08004214 · 14.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • ": They are both considered as developmental psychiatric disorders invol - ving psychotic symptoms with impairments in the same main behavioral domains ( especially in communication and social inter - actions ) . Communication impairments are reported in autistic dis - order as well as in early - onset schizophrenia ( Alaghband - Rad et al . 1995 ; Asarnow et al . 1994 ; Baum et al . 1995 ; Cantor et al . 1982 ) . Thus , impairments in verbal communication ( delay in the develop - ment of spoken language , poor or disorganized speech ) and non - verbal communication ( reduced facial expression or body language ; poor eye contact ; and abnormal emotional expression such as flat , bizarre , or inappropr"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Crespi & Badcock (C&B) hypothesize that psychosis and autism represent opposite poles of human social cognition. I briefly outline how computational models of cognitive brain function may be used as a resource to further develop and experimentally test hypotheses concerning "autism-psychosis spectrum disorders."1.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 06/2008; 31(3):282-283. DOI:10.1017/S0140525X08004433 · 14.96 Impact Factor
Show more