Vitamin and mineral supplement use is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8:887-892

Cancer Prevention Research Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109-1024, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 10/1999; 8(10):887-92.
Source: PubMed


This population-based, case-control study in King County, Washington examined supplement use in 697 incident prostate cancer cases (ages 40-64) identified from the Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program registry and 666 controls recruited from the same overall population using random-digit dialing sampling. Participants reported their frequency of use of three types of multivitamins and single supplements of vitamins A, C, and E, calcium, iron, and zinc over the 2 years before diagnosis. Logistic regression analyses controlled for age, race, education, family history of prostate cancer, body mass index, number of prostate-specific antigen tests in the previous 5 years, and dietary fat intake. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence limits) for the contrast of > or =7/week versus no use were as follows: multivitamins, 0.96 (0.73, 1.26); vitamin A, 0.59 (0.32, 1.06); vitamin C, 0.77 (0.57, 1.04); vitamin E, 0.76 (0.54, 1.08); calcium, 1.04 (0.61, 1.78); iron, 0.50 (0.13, 1.76); and zinc, 0.55 (0.30, 1.00). Odds ratios differed little when cases were stratified by stage of disease at diagnosis or by histopathological grade. There were significant dose-response effects for zinc and ordered dose-response trends for vitamins C and E. Overall, these results suggest that multivitamin use is not associated with prostate cancer risk, but use of individual supplements of zinc, vitamin C, and vitamin E may be protective. Further study is needed to investigate the direct role of these dietary supplements, as well as the role of lifestyle variables associated with supplement use, on prostate cancer risk.

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    • "Log total energy, vasectomy, age, smoked, marital status, study area, BMI, education, ever-used multivitamin supplements within 1 year, area of study, and log-converted amounts for grains, fruit, vegetables, total plants, total carotenoids, folic acid, dietary fiber, conjugated linoleic acid, vitamin E, retinol, total fat, and linoleic acid Kristal et al 1999 United states 1993-1996 PCC 40-64 697/666 Q1-Q4, cut points were not men- tioned Fat, energy, race, age, family history of prostate cancer, BMI, PSA tests in previous 5 years, and education Ramon et al 2000 Spain 1994-1998 HCC "
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    ABSTRACT: We attempted to systematically determine the association between dietary intake of vitamin C and risk of prostate cancer. PubMed and Embase were searched to obtain eligible studies published before February 2015. Cohort or case-control studies that reported the relative risk (RR)/odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between vitamin C intake and prostate cancer risk were included. Eighteen studies regarding dietary vitamin C intake were finally obtained, with a total of 103,658 subjects. The pooled RR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary vitamin C intake was 0.89 (95%CI: 0.83-0.94; p = 0.000) with evidence of a moderate heterogeneity (I(2) = 39.4%, p = 0.045). Meta-regression analysis suggested that study design accounted for a major proportion of the heterogeneity. Stratifying the overall study according to study design yielded pooled RRs of 0.92 (95%CI: 0.86-0.99, p = 0.027) among cohort studies and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.71-0.89, p = 0.000) among case-control studies, with no heterogeneity in either subgroup. In the dose-response analysis, an inverse linear relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and prostate cancer risk was established, with a 150 mg/day dietary vitamin C intake conferred RRs of 0.91 (95%CI: 0.84-0.98, p = 0.018) in the overall studies, 0.95 (95%CI: 0.90-0.99, p = 0.039) in cohort studies, and 0.79 (95%CI: 0.69-0.91, p = 0.001) in case-control studies. In conclusion, intake of vitamin C from food was inversely associated with prostate cancer risk in this meta-analysis.
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    • "We chose these behaviors, as well as body mass index, because they are known to be associated with diabetes [16-18]. We assessed diet with a detailed semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire adapted from a questionnaire developed for the Women's Health Initiative and other studies, [19-21] modified to men's studies of prostate health [22]. We assessed physical activity with questions adapted from the CARDIA Physical Activity History (PAH) [23-25] that queried the men about the frequency and duration of their participation in specific types of moderate and vigorous recreational, household, and work-related activities. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes disproportionately affects Latinos. However, examining Latinos as one group obscures important intra-group differences. This study examined how generational status, duration of US residence, and language preference are associated with diabetes prevalence and to what extent these explain the higher prevalence among Latinos. We determined nativity, duration of US residence, language preference, and diabetes prevalence among 11 817 Latino, 6109 black, and 52 184 white participants in the California Men's Health Study. We combined generational status and residence duration into a single migration status variable with levels: > or = third generation; second generation; and immigrant living in the US for > 25, 16-25, 11-15, or < or = 10 years. Language preference was defined as language in which the participant took the survey. Logistic regression models were specified to assess the associations of dependent variables with prevalent diabetes. Diabetes prevalence was 22%, 23%, and 11% among Latinos, blacks, and whites, respectively. In age-adjusted models, we observed a gradient of risk of diabetes by migration status among Latinos. Further adjustment for socioeconomic status, obesity and health behaviors only partially attenuated this gradient. Language preference was a weak predictor of prevalent diabetes in some models and not significant in others. In multivariate models, we found that odds of diabetes were higher among US-born Latinos than US-born blacks. Generational status and residence duration were associated with diabetes prevalence among middle-aged Latino men in California. As the Latino population grows, the burden of diabetes-associated disease is likely to increase and demands public health attention.
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    • "The latest cohort studies [5Á7] and randomized trials [8] showed no association between prostate cancer and vitamin E serum levels or supplement intake [6Á8] alone or in combination with vitamin C intake [9]. Some case-control studies have reported slight reductions in prostate cancer risk associated to dietary intake of vitamin E [10] [11], but not others [12] [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The epidemiologic evidence on dietary vitamins E and C and prostate cancer is controversial. Therefore, a case-control study was carried out to investigate the role of dietary intake of vitamins E and C in the etiology of prostate cancer. Cases were 1 294 men with incident, histologically confirmed prostate cancer, admitted to the major teaching and general hospitals of five Italian areas between 1991 and 2002. Controls were 1 451 men admitted for acute, non-neoplastic conditions to the same hospitals. Information on dietary habits and nutrient intake was elicited using a validated food frequency questionnaire including 78 food groups and recipes. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for increasing levels of vitamin intake were estimated after allowance for total energy intake and other confounding factors. Vitamin E showed a significant inverse association with prostate cancer (OR = 0.78 for the highest versus the lowest tertile of intake, 95% CI: 0.58-0.96; p-value for trend = 0.02), whereas for vitamin C the inverse association was of borderline statistical significance (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65-1.08). Results were consistent in strata of age, body mass index, and family history of prostate cancer. The present study shows an inverse association between dietary intake of vitamins E and prostate cancer incidence. This finding is likely to reflect the influence of diet itself since supplementation or food fortification with vitamins is rare in the Italian population.
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