Ero1p oxidizes protein disulfide isomerase in a pathway for disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum.
ABSTRACT Native protein disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and Ero1p. Here we show that oxidizing equivalents flow from Ero1p to substrate proteins via PDI. PDI is predominantly oxidized in wild-type cells but is reduced in an ero1-1 mutant. Direct dithiol-disulfide exchange between PDI and Ero1p is indicated by the capture of PDI-Ero1p mixed disulfides. Mixed disulfides can also be detected between PDI and the ER precursor of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY). Further, PDI1 is required for the net formation of disulfide bonds in newly synthesized CPY, indicating that PDI functions as an oxidase in vivo. Together, these results define a pathway for protein disulfide bond formation in the ER. The PDI homolog Mpd2p is also oxidized by Ero1p.
- SourceAvailable from: Xiao Li Shen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and apoptosis are involved in Ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced renal cytotoxicity. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase (MAPKKK, MAP3K) family member that plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis. In this study, we performed RNA interference of ASK1 in HEK293 cells and employed an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach to globally investigate the regulatory mechanism of ASK1 in OTA-induced renal cytotoxicity. Our results showed that ASK1 knockdown alleviated OTA-induced ROS generation and Δψm loss and thus desensitized the cells to OTA-induced apoptosis. We identified 33 and 24 differentially expressed proteins upon OTA treatment in scrambled and ASK1 knockdown cells, respectively. Pathway classification and analysis revealed that ASK1 participated in OTA-induced inhibition of mRNA splicing, nucleotide metabolism, the cell cycle, DNA repair, and the activation of lipid metabolism. We concluded that ASK1 plays an essential role in promoting OTA-induced renal cytotoxicity.
Article: Protein disulfide isomerase[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During the maturation of extracellular proteins, disulfide bonds that chemically cross-link specific cysteines are often added to stabilize a protein or to join it covalently to other proteins. Disulfide formation, which requires a change in the covalent structure of the protein, occurs as the protein folds into its three-dimensional structure. In the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and in the bacterial periplasm, an elaborate system of chaperones and folding catalysts ensure that disulfides connect the proper cysteines and that the folding protein does not make improper interactions. This review focuses specifically on one of these folding assistants, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an enzyme that catalyzes disulfide formation and isomerization and a chaperone that inhibits aggregation.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins & Proteomics 06/2004; 1699(1-2):35-44. DOI:10.1016/S1570-9639(04)00063-9 · 3.19 Impact Factor