Ero1p Oxidizes Protein Disulfide Isomerase in a Pathway for Disulfide Bond Formation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum
ABSTRACT Native protein disulfide bond formation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) requires protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and Ero1p. Here we show that oxidizing equivalents flow from Ero1p to substrate proteins via PDI. PDI is predominantly oxidized in wild-type cells but is reduced in an ero1-1 mutant. Direct dithiol-disulfide exchange between PDI and Ero1p is indicated by the capture of PDI-Ero1p mixed disulfides. Mixed disulfides can also be detected between PDI and the ER precursor of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY). Further, PDI1 is required for the net formation of disulfide bonds in newly synthesized CPY, indicating that PDI functions as an oxidase in vivo. Together, these results define a pathway for protein disulfide bond formation in the ER. The PDI homolog Mpd2p is also oxidized by Ero1p.
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ABSTRACT: The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway helps cells cope with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by activating genes that increase the ER's functional capabilities. We have identified a novel role for the UPR pathway in facilitating budding yeast cytokinesis. Although other cell cycle events are unaffected by conditions that disrupt ER function, cytokinesis is sensitive to these conditions. Moreover, efficient cytokinesis requires the UPR pathway even during unstressed growth conditions. UPR-deficient cells are defective in cytokinesis, and cytokinesis mutants activate the UPR. The UPR likely achieves its role in cytokinesis by sensing small changes in ER load and making according changes in ER capacity. We propose that cytokinesis is one of many cellular events that require a subtle increase in ER function and that the UPR pathway has a previously uncharacterized housekeeping role in maintaining ER plasticity during normal cell growth.The Journal of Cell Biology 07/2007; 177(6):1017-27. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200702101 · 9.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction of disulfide bonds into proteins entering the secretory pathway is catalyzed by Ero1p, which generates disulfide bonds de novo, and Pdi1p, which transfers disulfides to substrate proteins. A sufficiently oxidizing environment must be maintained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to allow for disulfide formation, but a pool of reduced thiols is needed for isomerization of incorrectly paired disulfides. We have found that hyperoxidation of the ER is prevented by attenuation of Ero1p activity through noncatalytic cysteine pairs. Deregulated Ero1p mutants lacking certain cysteines show increased enzyme activity, a decreased lag phase in kinetic assays, and growth defects in vivo. We hypothesize that noncatalytic cysteine pairs in Ero1p sense the level of potential substrates in the ER and correspondingly modulate Ero1p activity as part of a homeostatic regulatory system governing the thiol-disulfide balance in the ER.Cell 05/2007; 129(2):333-44. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2007.02.039 · 33.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The molecular steps of the electron transfer in the endoplasmic reticulum from the secreted proteins during their oxidation are relatively unknown. We present here that flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a powerful oxidizer of the oxidoreductase system, Ero1 and PDI, besides the proteins of rat liver microsomes and HepG2 hepatoma cells. Inhibition of FAD transport hindered the action of FAD. Microsomal membrane integrity was mandatory for all FAD-related oxidation steps downstream of Ero1. The PDI inhibitor bacitracin could inhibit FAD-mediated oxidation of microsomal proteins and PDI, but did not hinder the FAD-driven oxidation of Ero1. Our data demonstrated that Ero1 can utilize FAD as an electron acceptor and that FAD-driven protein oxidation goes through the Ero1-PDI pathway and requires the integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our findings prompt further studies to elucidate the membrane-dependent steps of PDI oxidation and the role of FAD in redox folding.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2006; 338(2):938-45. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.10.027 · 2.28 Impact Factor