Article

Studies on energetic compounds Part XI: Preparation and thermolysis of polynitro organic compounds

Department of Chemistry, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Korakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
Journal of Hazardous Materials (Impact Factor: 4.33). 10/1999; 68(3):155-78. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3894(99)00056-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The thermolysis of high energetic polynitro organic compounds has been reviewed in the present communication.

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    • "Synthesis of the explosive cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6- trinitramine, commonly known as RDX or hexogen or cyclonite, by reaction of hexamine with excess nitric acid is exothermic and known to exhibit thermal instability (Luo et al., 2002). The synthesis is often carried out in 100% HNO 3 at −20 • C (Singh et al., 1999). The following overall reaction includes a secondary reaction: "
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    ABSTRACT: Two exemplary exothermic processes, synthesis of nitroglycerine in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and synthesis of the explosive RDX in a CSTR, are used to demonstrate the dangers of ignoring the system dynamics when defining criteria for thermal criticality or runaway. Stability analyses are necessary to prescribe such criteria, and for these systems prove the presence of dangerous oscillatory thermal instability which cannot be detected using the steady state thermal balances.
    Process Safety and Environmental Protection 05/2012; 91(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psep.2012.05.008 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Other parameters as given for Fig. 1. HNO 3 at −20 • C (Singh et al., 1999). The following overall reaction includes a secondary reaction: "
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    ABSTRACT: Two exemplary exothermic processes, synthesis of nitroglycerine in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and synthesis of the explosive RDX in a CSTR, are used to demonstrate the dangers of ignoring the system dynamics when defining criteria for thermal criticality or runaway. Stability analyses are necessary to prescribe such criteria, and for these systems prove the presence of dangerous oscillatory thermal instability which cannot be detected using the steady state thermal balances. Additional note: Two published examples of incorrect and dangerous thermal runaway criteria are exposed. Stability theory has been used by chemical engineers to assay reactive thermal hazard for sixty years - why has this knowledge been completely ignored by the authors of those works? They claim to specify thermal 'safety' criteria but, to the contrary, they are seriously putting human lives at risk. Oscillatory thermal instability is real, it is not a numerical or other artefact, it may occur with violent abruptness, it is dangerous.
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    ABSTRACT: The research work reported on the preparation, characterisation and applications of more than 50 salts of NTO has been reviewed thoroughly. A broad classification and sub classification of all these compounds has been given on the basis of nature of the compounds with which NTO forms salts. Attempt has been made to discuss the structure of these salts by summarising analytical data reported from 13C NMR. The structure as determined by IR spectroscopy as well as XRD has also been discussed briefly. A generalised mechanism for the thermolysis of the metal salts has also been given and any deviation from this has been narrated in particular cases. The kinetic details, thermodynamical and thermochemical data as well as performance parameters have also been reviewed. Thus, the futuristic potentials of these salts are analysed critically and further studies have been suggested.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 03/2002; 90(1):1-17. DOI:10.1016/S0304-3894(01)00349-1 · 4.33 Impact Factor
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