Article

Separating in-utero and postnatal influences on later disease

University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 11/1999; 354(9189):1526-7. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(99)02937-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Associations of birthweight with leg length and trunk length are similar. Childhood exposures rather than in-utero programming may underlie specific associations seen between leg length and mortality.

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    • "Several studies (Gunnell et al., 1999; Li et al., 2007; Wadsworth et al., 2002) have shown that leg length, but not trunk length, is the height component that is more sensitive to postpartum environmental exposures during infancy. In contrast, birth weight, a proxy of intrauterine development, has an identical impact on both leg and trunk length growth (Gunnell et al., 1999; Wadsworth et al., 2002). Some studies, including ours, have shown that relatively longer leg length "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between leg-length-to-height ratio (LLHR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese children. Methods 1236 children (619 obese and 617 nonobese children) aged 3–6 years participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2005 in Tianjin, China. Information on body adiposity, metabolic traits, and related covariates was obtained using a standardized protocol. LLHR was calculated as the ratio of leg length to stature. Results In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared with those in the lowest quartile, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of MetS among children in the second through the highest quartiles of LLHR Z-score were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.64–1.25), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.32–0.63), and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.26–0.53), respectively, (Pfor trend < 0.0001 across LLHR Z-score quartiles). Compared with children with both higher levels of LLHR and lower levels of adipose indices, the corresponding ORs of MetS for those with both lower levels of LLHR and higher levels of anthropometric indices were 4.51 (95% CI, 3.08–6.62) for BMI Z-score, 3.86 (95% CI, 2.60–5.73) for waist circumference, and 2.75 (95% CI, 1.85–4.10) for waist-to-hip ratio, respectively. Conclusions Greater LLHR is inversely associated with MetS in Chinese children.
    12/2014; Volume 1:Pages 62–67. DOI:10.1016/j.pmedr.2014.11.002
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    • "Several studies (Gunnell et al., 1999; Li et al., 2007; Wadsworth et al., 2002) have shown that leg length, but not trunk length, is the height component that is more sensitive to postpartum environmental exposures during infancy. In contrast, birth weight, a proxy of intrauterine development, has an identical impact on both leg and trunk length growth (Gunnell et al., 1999; Wadsworth et al., 2002). Some studies, including ours, have shown that relatively longer leg length "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between leg-length-to-height ratio (LLHR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese children. Methods: 1236 children (619 obese and 617 nonobese children) aged 3–6 years participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2005 in Tianjin, China. Information on body adiposity, metabolic traits, and related covariates was obtained using a standardized protocol. LLHR was calculated as the ratio of leg length to stature. Results: In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared with those in the lowest quartile, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of MetS among children in the second through the highest quartiles of LLHR Z-score were 0.89 (95% CI, 0.64–1.25), 0.45 (95% CI, 0.32–0.63), and 0.37 (95% CI, 0.26–0.53), respectively, (Pfor trend < 0.0001 across LLHR Z-score quartiles). Compared with children with both higher levels of LLHR and lower levels of adipose indices, the corresponding ORs of MetS for those with both lower levels of LLHR and higher levels of anthropometric indices were 4.51 (95% CI, 3.08–6.62) for BMI Z-score, 3.86 (95% CI, 2.60–5.73) for waist circumference, and 2.75 (95% CI, 1.85–4.10) for waist-to-hip ratio, respectively. Conclusions: Greater LLHR is inversely associated with MetS in Chinese children.
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    ABSTRACT: This thesis investigated the influences of early life socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Russia, Poland and the Czech Republic. Early life SEC are inversely associated with CVD risk factors and outcomes in western countries, but the same relationships have not been evaluated in Central and Eastern Europe. CVD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this region. I used data from the first round of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study, which randomly selected men and women aged 45 to 69 years from population registers in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and six towns in the Czech Republic. Nearly 29,000 people were recruited, with an overall response rate of 61%. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension), lipids (total and HDL cholesterol), adiposity (BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio), smoking habits (starting and quitting) and CVD risk, as measured by SCORE, were assessed in relation to retrospectively collected direct and proxy measures of early life SEC. The reliability of adult anthropometric measures (height, leg length and trunk length) as proxy markers of early life SEC was confirmed by investigating the relationships with three direct measures of early life SEC (maternal and paternal education and household ownership of six assets at age ten years). Higher childhood SEC were linked to an increased likelihood of women starting smoking, a decreased likelihood of men quitting smoking, and reduced adiposity in both genders. The remaining CVD risk factors and overall CVD risk did not appear to be consistently influenced by childhood SEC. The results of the thesis suggest that early life socioeconomic influences on classical CVD risk may not be consistent across cultures, and that they may vary by the stage of the epidemiological transition and by local context.
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