Effect of asbestos-related pleural fibrosis on excursion of the lower chest wall and diaphragm.
ABSTRACT To examine mechanisms responsible for reduced lung volumes (restriction) in asbestos-related pleural fibrosis (APF), we studied diaphragm function and lower rib-cage excursion in 26 subjects with previous asbestos exposure and no evidence of asbestosis. Using posteroanterior (PA) and lateral chest radiographs taken at residual volume and at 25%, 70%, and 100% vital capacity (VC) during a slow inspiratory maneuver, we measured fractional expansion of the lower rib cage (FErc), fractional shortening of the diaphragm (FSdi), and changes (Delta) in diaphragm dome height (Hdo) and subphrenic volume (Vdi). Vdi was estimated by measuring the major and minor axes of the subphrenic space at 1-cm intervals, assuming an elliptical cross-sectional shape, and correcting for the volume of spinal and paraspinal tissues. Seven subjects had no evidence of APF (control), 12 had pleural plaques (PP), and seven had diffuse pleural thickening with costophrenic obliteration (DPT). Over the range of VC, results (mean +/- SEM, normalized for height) in control subjects were VC = 101.2 +/- 4.0 % predicted and DeltaVdi = 326 +/- 8 ml/m(3), and for the right hemithorax and hemidiaphragm on the PA film, FErc = 0.07 +/- 0.02, FSdi = 0.32 +/- 0.02 and DeltaHdo = 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm/m. Relative to controls: DPT subjects had reduced VC (77.4 +/- 4.9%, p < 0.01), DeltaVdi (256 +/- 2 ml/m(3), p < 0.01), FErc (0.01 +/- 0.02, p < 0.01), FSdi (0.24 +/- 0.01, p < 0.001), and DeltaHdo (-0.9 +/- 0.06 cm/m, p < 0.01); PP subjects had reduced FSdi (0.25 +/- 0.01, p < 0.001) and DeltaVdi (233 +/- 47 ml/m(3), p < 0.01), and no difference in FErc, DeltaHdo, or VC. We conclude that restriction in DPT is due to obliteration of the zone of apposition, and that by limiting separation of the diaphragm from the rib cage during inspiration, this reduces volume contributed by motion of the diaphragm and lower rib cage. Reduction in the latter contribution was the main cause of restriction, because the reduction in volume contributed by the diaphragm was partly compensated by flattening of its dome.
- SourceAvailable from: taichiscience.netJournal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 10/2007; 11(4):340-351.
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ABSTRACT: Buddhist statues may provide kinesthetic lessons relating the human body's actions and the spiritual life. This two-part paper presents a descriptive analysis of a statue of a meditating Buddha sitting in lotus pose. The statue, from the ancient Javanese monument, Borobudur, is correlated with Iyengar yoga and therapeutic soft-tissue manipulation. In addition, discussion is presented of the statue as a history of Hindu pranayama and Buddhist meditation practices. The three-dimensional modeling of the Buddha's torso is evaluated from the perspective of anatomy and the movement arts. A resulting somatic vocabulary presents Asian art without emphasizing textual discourse and analysis of esthetic motifs so that the art presents a kinesthetic lesson on the ideal connection between the human body's actions and the spiritual life. Central to this paper is the presumption that sculpture depicts the kinesthetics of breathing but must be carefully teased apart from historical anachronism.Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 01/2007; 11(3):214-222.
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ABSTRACT: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently conducted a risk assessment for exposure to Libby amphibole asbestos that is precedent-setting for two reasons. First, the Agency has not previously conducted a risk assessment for a specific type of asbestos fiber. Second, the risk assessment includes not only an inhalation unit risk (IUR) for the cancer endpoints, but also a reference concentration (RfC) for nonmalignant disease. In this paper, we review the procedures used by the Agency for both cancer and nonmalignant disease and discuss the strengths and limitations of these procedures. The estimate of the RfC uses the benchmark dose method applied to pleural plaques in a small subcohort of vermiculite workers in Marysville, Ohio. We show that these data are too sparse to inform the exposure-response relationship in the low-exposure region critical for estimation of an RfC, and that different models with very different exposure-response shapes fit the data equally well. Furthermore, pleural plaques do not represent a disease condition and do not appear to meet the EPA's definition of an adverse condition. The estimation of the IUR for cancer is based on a subcohort of Libby miners, discarding the vast majority of lung cancers and mesotheliomas in the entire cohort and ignoring important time-related factors in exposure and risk, including effect modification by age. We propose that an IUR based on an endpoint that combines lung cancer, mesothelioma, and nonmalignant respiratory disease (NMRD) in this cohort would protect against both malignant and nonmalignant disease. However, the IUR should be based on the entire cohort of Libby miners, and the analysis should properly account for temporal factors. We illustrate our discussion with our own independent analyses of the data used by the Agency.Critical Reviews in Toxicology 05/2014; · 6.25 Impact Factor