Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the rat mammary gland.
ABSTRACT Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), a member of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) family of peptides, is present in the brain and in neuronal elements of a number of peripheral organs. Since no information on PACAP in the mammary gland exists, we have investigated, by radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemistry, the occurrence and distribution of PACAP immunoreactivity in the mammary gland of lactating and non-lactating rats. A specific monoclonal mouse anti-PACAP antibody'has been used to show that the peptide is located in nerve fibres associated with bundles of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle surrounding the lactiferous duct of the nipple. PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres and nerve bundles are present in the subepidermal connective tissue of the nipple and in the mammary parenchyma, some of the fibres being in close contact with blood vessels. Occasionally, a few delicate varicose fibres are associated with secretory alveoli and lactiferous ducts. The majority of PACAP-positive nerve fibres are, however, located in the glabrous skin of the nipple and the hairy skin adjacent to the nipple forming a subepithelial plexus from which delicate varicose nerve fibres enter the overlying epithelium. Double immunostaining for PACAP and a marker for sensory neurons, calcitonin gene-related peptide, has disclosed that the two peptides are almost completely co-localized. A minor population of the PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres shows co-existence with VIP. Although no obvious changes at the immunohistochemical level could be observed during pregnancy or lactation, elevated concentrations of immunoreactive PACAP-38 in mammary extracts have been found during lactation. Our data suggest that PACAP is involved in the nervous control of mammary gland function, probably in the transmission of suckling stimuli.
Article: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)--immunoreactive nerve fibres in the mammary gland of the pig.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemical studies have been performed to investigate the coexistence of VIP with dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (D(beta)H), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), somatostatin (SOM) or neuropeptyd Y (NPY) within nerve fibres supplying the immature mammary gland in the pig. Generally, a moderate number of the VIP-immunoreactive (VIP-IR) nerve fibres were located in the nipple and parenchyma of the gland. VIP-IR fibres surrounded smooth muscle cells (SMC), blood vessels (BV) and lactiferous ducts (LD). Double-labelling immunohistochemistry revealed that some of VIP-IR nerve fibres also contained immunoreactivity to D(beta)H. VIP/D(beta)H-IR nerves were associated with BV and SMC and single fibres were observed around the LD in both nipple and parenchyma of the gland. VIP/VAChT-IR nerve fibres were not observed. The majority of VIP-IR fibres associated with SMC were also SOM-IR. Less numerous VIP/SOM-IR fibres supplied the BV and were located around the LD of the gland. A small number of VIP-IR nerves also displayed immunoreactivity to NPY. VIP/NPY-IR nerve fibres supplied the BV of the gland.Folia morphologica 02/2003; 62(3):267-70. · 0.52 Impact Factor