Granulocyte Macrophage Colony–Stimulating Factor as an Adjuvant for Hepatitis B Vaccination of Healthy Adults

Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 01/2000; 180(6):2023-6. DOI: 10.1086/315129
Source: PubMed


Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has shown promise as an adjuvant to improve the kinetics and magnitude of the immune response after vaccination. It was hypothesized that GM-CSF given intramuscularly (IM) with hepatitis B vaccine would result in increased seroconversion rates and antibody titers. In total, 108 healthy volunteers (18-45 years old) received recombinant hepatitis B vaccine IM at 0, 1, and 6 months and were randomized to receive either concurrent GM-CSF (80 or 250 microgram) or placebo IM with the first two vaccinations. The percentages of subjects achieving a protective level of antibody at day 56 were 58.3%, 58.8%, and 58.3% in the placebo and 80- and 250-microgram GM-CSF arms, respectively. The geometric mean titers of antibody measured on days 28, 56, and 189 were not statistically different between arms. GM-CSF given immediately before recombinant hepatitis B vaccination was safe and well tolerated but did not appear to provide significant adjuvant activity at this dose.

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    • "All the included studies were described as randomized, but the method to generate the sequence was described and appropriate in four studies only [23] [26] [30] [43]. Three studies were defined as double blind, and one as single blind [23] [28] [30] [36]. Only the study defined as a single blind trial clearly reported concealment of treatment allocation [23] "
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance the immune response to hepatitis B virus vaccine has been object of several reports. We searched for randomized controlled clinical trials comparing GM-CSF given concomitantly to hepatitis B virus vaccine to vaccine given alone or with placebo. Data on rates of seroconversion (anti-HBs titers >10 IU/ml) from 13 studies (734 subjects) produced combined estimates that favored GM-CSF as compared to controls: rate ratio after a single immunization was 1.54 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-2.27] and 1.20 (95% CI, 1.02-1.42) at the end of the vaccination cycle. Using a logistic approach a significant dose/response effect of GM-CSF was seen. Moreover, in renal failure patients who have responded to the vaccine, GM-CSF increased anti-HBs titers. Our findings suggest that GM-CSF induced a significant effect in terms of response rate and achievement of an earlier seroconversion to the vaccine in the overall populations examined, in renal failure patients and in healthy individuals.
    Vaccine 01/2007; 25(4):709-18. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.08.015 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance the primary immune response to hepatitis B vaccine was studied in healthy elderly with young volunteers included as controls in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of GM-CSF as an immune adjuvant. Naïve T-helper cells (CD4+CD45RA+) were determined at baseline. Forty-five healthy elderly (average age, 74 years) and 37 healthy young controls (average age, 28 years) were randomized. Hepatitis B vaccine was administered at 0, 1, and 6 months. GM-CSF as a single injection of either 80 microg or 250 microg with the first and second doses of hepatitis B vaccine. In this trial GM-CSF did not enhance antibody responses. However, the antibody responses were dramatically different between these two groups: 35/35 young developed a protective titer versus 19/45 elderly (P < 0.0001). In addition, the mean logarithm of anti-hepatitis B antibody level in the 35 young who completed the study was 3.17 (log mIU/ml) but only 2.21 in the 19 elderly responders (P < 0.0001). Naïve T-helper cells differed significantly between the two groups: the mean percentage of CD4+CD45RA+ T cells was 47.9% versus 35.0% (P < 0.0001) in the young and elderly volunteers respectively. Naïve T cells also differed significantly between elderly who did or did not respond to HBV (39.9% vs. 31.7%, P = 0.039). Using linear regression, age, and percent naive, CD4 T cells were determined to significantly influence the anti-hepatitis B antibody response, but sex and dose of GM-CSF did not. For a two-parameter model: logarithm of antibody titer = (-0.038 x age in years) + (0.031 x % naïve CD4T cells) + 2.68; adjusted r2 = 0.605 and P < 0.0001. However, age had a larger effect than naive CD4 T cells, i.e., in comparing young and elderly groups the log antibody titer decreased by 1.73 due to the increase in age but only 0.40 due to the decrease in naive CD4 T cells. Thus, there was a large effect of age that could not be explained by the quantitative change in the naïve T-helper cells.
    Journal of Clinical Immunology 01/2001; 21(1):30-6. DOI:10.1023/A:1006736931381 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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