The neuroprotective and hypothermic effect of GYKI 52466, a non-competitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazopropionic acid antagonist on histological and behavioural variables in the gerbil global ischemia model
The neuroprotective activity of the non-competitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) antagonist GYKI-52466 (1-[4-aminophenyl]-4-methyl-7,8-methylene-dioxy-5H-2,3-benzodia zep ine HCI; EGIS-8159) was studied in the gerbil bilateral carotid occlusion (BCO) model of global ischemia. Drug effect on hippocampal CA1 neuronal loss, hypermotility, and cognitive deficit (decrease in spontaneous alternation (SA) behaviour in the Y-maze) induced by 5-min or 3-min BCO were measured. GYKI-52466 was administered at 4 x 15 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses 30, 45, 60, and 75 min following surgery. The competitive AMPA antagonist NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(F)-quinoxaline) applied at 3 x 30 mg/kg i.p. doses 60, 70, and 85 min after reperfusion was also tested for comparison. Both compounds showed weak and non-significant effects on 5-min BCO-induced changes in all the three variables. However, following 3-min ischemia GYKI-52466 and NBQX produced significant inhibition (49% and 48%, respectively) on CA1 cell loss. Moreover, GYKI-52466, but not NBQX, significantly inhibited the 3-min ischemia induced hypermotility and decrease in SA. At their neuroprotective doses, both compounds caused long-lasting (min. 8 h) hypothermia in gerbils. GYKI-52466 induced much higher decrease in body temperature (6 degrees C at peak level) than NBQX did (2 degrees C at peak level). Administration of 4 x 10 mg/kg i.p. chlorpromazine to gerbils 15 min before and 0, 15, and 30 min after 3-min BCO resulted in considerable hypothermia (5.5 degrees C peak effect, 8 h duration), but no protective action of the compound on CA1 cell loss and hypermotility was observed. However, chlorpromazine inhibited the ischemia-induced cognitive impairment. The results suggest that drug-induced hypothermia may differentially influence the histological and the behavioural outcomes of ischemic intervention.
"Based on previous studies showing antiamnesic effects of AMPAR antagonists in a rodent model of brain ischemia   and considering similar effects induced by this model and by SD on the glutamatergic system   , we sought to verify if treatment with GYKI 52466 could prevent the learning deficits induced by sleep deprivation. Contrary to our hypothesis, chronic or acute treatments with this drug did not improve PA performance in sleep deprived animals, suggesting that different mechanisms may underlie the memory deficits induced by brain ischemia and sleep deprivation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) binding in brain regions associated with learning and memory, and investigated whether treatment with drugs acting on AMPAR could prevent passive avoidance deficits in sleep deprived animals. [(3)H]AMPA binding and GluR1 in situ hybridization signals were quantified in different brain regions of male Wistar rats either immediately after 96h of sleep deprivation or after 24h of sleep recovery following 96h of sleep deprivation. Another group of animals were sleep deprived and then treated with either the AMPAR potentiator, aniracetam (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, acute administration) or the AMPAR antagonist GYKI-52466 (5 and 10mg/kg, acute and chronic administration) before passive avoidance training. Task performance was evaluated 2h and 24h after training. A significant reduction in [(3)H]AMPA binding was found in the hippocampal formation of SD animals, while no alterations were observed in GluR1 mRNA levels. The highest dose of aniracetam (100mg/kg) reverted SD-induced impairment of passive avoidance performance in both retention tests, whereas GYKI-52466 treatment had no effect. Pharmacological enhancement of AMPAR function may revert hippocampal-dependent learning impairments produced after SD. We argue that such effects might be associated with reduced AMPAR binding in the hippocampus of sleep deprived animals.
Behavioural brain research 09/2013; 257. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.09.037 · 3.03 Impact Factor
"Locomotor hyperactivity is predictive to estimate the severity of stroke in this model . Memory impairment occurring predominantly in visuo-spatial learning is often tested in spontaneous alternation, in radial arm maze and in Morris water maze paradigms   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient occlusion of common carotid arteries in gerbils is a simple and widely used model for assessing histological and functional consequences of transient forebrain ischemia and neuroprotective action of pharmaceuticals. In the present study we aimed to introduce additional behavioural tests as novel object recognition and food-motivated hole-board learning in order to measure attention and learning capacity in gerbils. For validating these cognitive tests the effects of ageing (4, 9 and 18 months) and those of transient forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral carotid occlusion at 9 months of age were investigated. Neuronal cell death was estimated in the hippocampus using TUNEL and caspase-3 double fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy. Ageing within the selected range although influenced ambulatory activity, did not considerably change attention and memory functions of gerbils. As a result of transient ischemia a selective neuronal damage in CA1 and CA2 regions of the hippocampus has been observed and tested 4 days after the insult. Ischemic gerbils became hyperactive, but showed decreased attention and impaired spatial memory functions as compared to sham-operated controls. According to our results the novel object recognition paradigm and the hole-board spatial learning test could reliably be added to the battery of conventional behavioural tests applied previously in this species. The novel tests can be performed within a wide interval of adult age and provide useful additional methods for assessing ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils.
"However, GYKI 53405 decreased the body temperature of gerbils to a much greater extent than did EGIS-8332. A strong effect on body temperature complicates interpretation of the neuroprotective effect of compounds as hypothermia has been repeatedly shown to attenuate ischaemic injury (Colbourne et al., 2003; Harukuni and Bhardwaj, 2006), although our previous results did not support this possibility (Gyertyán et al., 1999). Furthermore, the duration of ischaemia was relatively short in both global ischaemia models in our study in comparison to that applied in other studies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blockade of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors is a good treatment option for a variety of central nervous system disorders. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, as a potential drug candidate.
AMPA antagonist effects of EGIS-8332 were measured using patch-clamp techniques. Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332 were evaluated in various experimental models, relative to those of GYKI 53405.
EGIS-8332 inhibited AMPA currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibited the AMPA- and quisqualate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cultures of telencephalon neurons (IC(50)=5.1-9.0 microM), in vitro. Good anticonvulsant actions were obtained in maximal electroshock-, sound- and chemically-induced seizures (range of ED(50)=1.4-14.0 mg kg(-1) i.p.) in mice. Four days after transient global cerebral ischaemia, EGIS-8332 decreased neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 area in gerbils and rats. EGIS-8332 dose-dependently reduced cerebral infarct size after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice and rats (minimum effective dose=3 mg kg(-1) i.p.). Side effects of EGIS-8332 emerged much above its pharmacologically active doses. A tendency for better efficacy of GYKI 53405 than that of EGIS-8332 was observed in anticonvulsant tests that reached statistical significance in few cases, while the contrary was perceived in cerebral ischaemia tests.
EGIS-8332 seems suitable for further development for the treatment of epilepsy, ischaemia and stroke based on its efficacy in a variety of experimental disease models, and on its low side effect potential.
British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2007; 152(1):151-60. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707362 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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