The neuroprotective and hypothermic effect of GYKI-52466, a non-competitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-antagonist on histological and behavioural variables in the gerbil global ischemia model.
ABSTRACT The neuroprotective activity of the non-competitive alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) antagonist GYKI-52466 (1-[4-aminophenyl]-4-methyl-7,8-methylene-dioxy-5H-2,3-benzodia zep ine HCI; EGIS-8159) was studied in the gerbil bilateral carotid occlusion (BCO) model of global ischemia. Drug effect on hippocampal CA1 neuronal loss, hypermotility, and cognitive deficit (decrease in spontaneous alternation (SA) behaviour in the Y-maze) induced by 5-min or 3-min BCO were measured. GYKI-52466 was administered at 4 x 15 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) doses 30, 45, 60, and 75 min following surgery. The competitive AMPA antagonist NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(F)-quinoxaline) applied at 3 x 30 mg/kg i.p. doses 60, 70, and 85 min after reperfusion was also tested for comparison. Both compounds showed weak and non-significant effects on 5-min BCO-induced changes in all the three variables. However, following 3-min ischemia GYKI-52466 and NBQX produced significant inhibition (49% and 48%, respectively) on CA1 cell loss. Moreover, GYKI-52466, but not NBQX, significantly inhibited the 3-min ischemia induced hypermotility and decrease in SA. At their neuroprotective doses, both compounds caused long-lasting (min. 8 h) hypothermia in gerbils. GYKI-52466 induced much higher decrease in body temperature (6 degrees C at peak level) than NBQX did (2 degrees C at peak level). Administration of 4 x 10 mg/kg i.p. chlorpromazine to gerbils 15 min before and 0, 15, and 30 min after 3-min BCO resulted in considerable hypothermia (5.5 degrees C peak effect, 8 h duration), but no protective action of the compound on CA1 cell loss and hypermotility was observed. However, chlorpromazine inhibited the ischemia-induced cognitive impairment. The results suggest that drug-induced hypothermia may differentially influence the histological and the behavioural outcomes of ischemic intervention.
- SourceAvailable from: Edina A Wappler[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transient occlusion of common carotid arteries in gerbils is a simple and widely used model for assessing histological and functional consequences of transient forebrain ischemia and neuroprotective action of pharmaceuticals. In the present study we aimed to introduce additional behavioural tests as novel object recognition and food-motivated hole-board learning in order to measure attention and learning capacity in gerbils. For validating these cognitive tests the effects of ageing (4, 9 and 18 months) and those of transient forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral carotid occlusion at 9 months of age were investigated. Neuronal cell death was estimated in the hippocampus using TUNEL and caspase-3 double fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy. Ageing within the selected range although influenced ambulatory activity, did not considerably change attention and memory functions of gerbils. As a result of transient ischemia a selective neuronal damage in CA1 and CA2 regions of the hippocampus has been observed and tested 4 days after the insult. Ischemic gerbils became hyperactive, but showed decreased attention and impaired spatial memory functions as compared to sham-operated controls. According to our results the novel object recognition paradigm and the hole-board spatial learning test could reliably be added to the battery of conventional behavioural tests applied previously in this species. The novel tests can be performed within a wide interval of adult age and provide useful additional methods for assessing ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils.Physiology & Behavior 03/2009; 97(1):107-14. · 3.16 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) binding in brain regions associated with learning and memory, and investigated whether treatment with drugs acting on AMPAR could prevent passive avoidance deficits in sleep deprived animals. [(3)H]AMPA binding and GluR1 in situ hybridization signals were quantified in different brain regions of male Wistar rats either immediately after 96h of sleep deprivation or after 24h of sleep recovery following 96h of sleep deprivation. Another group of animals were sleep deprived and then treated with either the AMPAR potentiator, aniracetam (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, acute administration) or the AMPAR antagonist GYKI-52466 (5 and 10mg/kg, acute and chronic administration) before passive avoidance training. Task performance was evaluated 2h and 24h after training. A significant reduction in [(3)H]AMPA binding was found in the hippocampal formation of SD animals, while no alterations were observed in GluR1 mRNA levels. The highest dose of aniracetam (100mg/kg) reverted SD-induced impairment of passive avoidance performance in both retention tests, whereas GYKI-52466 treatment had no effect. Pharmacological enhancement of AMPAR function may revert hippocampal-dependent learning impairments produced after SD. We argue that such effects might be associated with reduced AMPAR binding in the hippocampus of sleep deprived animals.Behavioural brain research 09/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AMPA receptors are fast ligand-gated members of glutamate receptors in neuronal and many types of non-neuronal cells. The heterotetramer complexes are assembled from four subunits (GluR1-4) in region-, development- and function-selective patterns. Each subunit contains three extracellular domains (a large amino terminal domain, an agonist-binding domain and a transducer domain), and three transmembrane segments with a loop (pore forming domain), as well as the intracellular carboxy terminal tail (traffic and conductance regulatory domain). The binding of the agonist (excitatory amino acids and their derivatives) initiates conformational realignments, which transmit to the transducer domain and membrane spanning segments to gate the channel permeable to Na+, K+ and more or less to Ca2+. Several 2,3-benzodiazepines act as non-competitive antagonists of the AMPA receptor (termed also negative allosteric modulators), which are thought to bind to the transducer domains and inhibit channel gating. Analysing their effects in vitro, it has been possible to recognize a structure-activity relationship, and to describe the critical parts of the molecules involved in their action at AMPA receptors. Blockade of AMPA receptors can protect the brain from apoptotic and necrotic cell death by preventing neuronal excitotoxicity during pathophysiological activation of glutamatergic neurons. Animal experiments provided evidence for the potential usefulness of non-competitive AMPA antagonists in the treatment of human ischemic and neurodegenerative disorders including stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, periventricular leukomalacia and motoneuron disease. 2,3-benzodiazepine AMPA antagonists can protect against seizures, decrease levodopa-induced dyskinesia in animal models of Parkinson's disease demonstrating their utility for the treatment of a variety of CNS disorders.Neurochemistry International 02/2008; 52(1-2):166-83. · 2.66 Impact Factor