S. pombe Pbh1p: an inhibitor of apoptosis domain containing protein is essential for chromosome segregation.
ABSTRACT Proteins containing the baculovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeats (BIR domains) have been identified in a wide range of species. BIR domain containing proteins are thought to inhibit caspases and thereby cause inhibition of apoptosis. A BIR domain containing protein has been recently identified by the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome sequencing project. However, caspase-like proteins have not been found in yeasts, suggesting that the BIR domain containing proteins might play a fundamental role in cell regulation, in addition to their well-characterized role in inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, we have characterized Pbh1p, an S. pombe BIR domain containing protein. Construction and analysis of a null mutant in pbh1+ revealed that pbh1+ is essential for cell viability. Moreover, cells devoid of Pbh1p are defective in chromosome condensation and chromosome segregation. Thus, proper chromosome segregation requires the function of Pbh1p. Over-production of Pbh1p led to abnormalities in mitosis and cytokinesis, suggesting that the levels of Pbh1p are important for regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis.
Article: Deconstructing Survivin: comprehensive genetic analysis of Survivin function by conditional knockout in a vertebrate cell line.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Survivin is a key cellular protein thought to function in apoptotic regulation, mitotic progression, or possibly both. In this study, we describe the isolation of two conditional knockouts of the survivin gene in chicken DT40 cells. DT40 cells lacking Survivin die in interphase after failing to complete cytokinesis. However, these cells show normal sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent etoposide. Expression of Survivin mutants against a null background to reassess the role of several key residues reveals that DT40 cells can grow normally if their sole Survivin is missing a widely studied cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation site or sites reportedly essential for binding to Smac or aurora B. Mutations in the nuclear export sequence or dimerization interface render cells temperature sensitive for growth. As an important caveat for other studies in which protein function is studied by transient transfection, three of the Survivin mutants fail to localize in the presence of the wild-type protein but do localize and indeed support life in its absence.The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2008; 183(2):279-96. · 10.26 Impact Factor
Article: Suppressors of Bir1p (Survivin) identify roles for the chromosomal passenger protein Pic1p (INCENP) and the replication initiation factor Psf2p in chromosome segregation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fission yeast Bir1p/Cut17p/Pbh1p, the homolog of human Survivin, is a conserved chromosomal passenger protein that is required for cell division and cytokinesis. To study how Bir1p promotes accurate segregation of chromosomes, we generated and analyzed a temperature-sensitive allele, bir1-46, and carried out genetic screens to find genes that interact with bir1(+). We identified Psf2p, a component of the GINS complex required for DNA replication initiation, as a high-copy-number suppressor of the bir1-46 growth defect. Loss of Psf2p function by depletion or deletion or by use of a temperature-sensitive allele, psf2-209, resulted in chromosome missegregation that was associated with mislocalization of Bir1p. We also found that the human homolog of Psf2p, PSF2, was required for proper chromosome segregation. In addition, we observed that high-copy-number expression of Pic1p, the fission yeast homolog of INCENP (inner centromere protein), suppressed bir1-46. Pic1p exhibited a localization pattern typical of chromosomal passenger proteins. Deletion of pic1(+) caused chromosome missegregation phenotypes similar to those of bir1-46. Our data suggest that Bir1p and Pic1p act as part of a conserved chromosomal passenger complex and that Psf2p/GINS indirectly affects the localization and function of this complex in chromosome segregation, perhaps through an S-phase role in centromere replication.Molecular and Cellular Biology 11/2005; 25(20):9000-15. · 5.53 Impact Factor
Article: Cytokinesis in eukaryotes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytokinesis is the final event of the cell division cycle, and its completion results in irreversible partition of a mother cell into two daughter cells. Cytokinesis was one of the first cell cycle events observed by simple cell biological techniques; however, molecular characterization of cytokinesis has been slowed by its particular resistance to in vitro biochemical approaches. In recent years, the use of genetic model organisms has greatly advanced our molecular understanding of cytokinesis. While the outcome of cytokinesis is conserved in all dividing organisms, the mechanism of division varies across the major eukaryotic kingdoms. Yeasts and animals, for instance, use a contractile ring that ingresses to the cell middle in order to divide, while plant cells build new cell wall outward to the cortex. As would be expected, there is considerable conservation of molecules involved in cytokinesis between yeast and animal cells, while at first glance, plant cells seem quite different. However, in recent years, it has become clear that some aspects of division are conserved between plant, yeast, and animal cells. In this review we discuss the major recent advances in defining cytokinesis, focusing on deciding where to divide, building the division apparatus, and dividing. In addition, we discuss the complex problem of coordinating the division cycle with the nuclear cycle, which has recently become an area of intense research. In conclusion, we discuss how certain cells have utilized cytokinesis to direct development.Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 07/2002; 66(2):155-78. · 13.02 Impact Factor