The spectrum of radial longitudinal deficiency: a modified classification.
ABSTRACT The records of 119 patients with 196 extremities with radial longitudinal deficiency seen between 1923 and 1996 were reviewed. We propose a global classification system that includes the spectrum of pathology affecting the radial side of the extremity, including deficiency of the radius, carpal abnormalities, and hypoplastic thumbs. Radial deficiency could be classified for 181 extremities of 104 patients using this classification system. Type N has a normal length radius and a normal carpus with thumb hypoplasia, type O has a normal length radius and radial side carpal abnormalities, type 1 has more than 2 mm shortening of the radius, type 2 has a hypoplastic radius, type 3 has a partial radius with absence of the distal physis, and type 4 has complete absence of the radius. All patients had thumb hypoplasia. Eighty-two percent of extremities with thumb hypoplasia but no deficiency of the radius that were available for carpal bone classification had carpal anomalies, including absence, hypoplasia, and coalitions. All the extremities with type 1 radial deficiency had carpal anomalies. Carpal abnormalities could not be determined for types 2, 3, and 4 deficiency because most had a prior centralization. Proximal radioulnar synostosis or congenital dislocation of the radial head was seen in 44% of extremities with type 1 radial deficiency. This classification includes carpal anomalies and thereby links isolated thumb hypoplasia and deficiency of the radius into one system.
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ABSTRACT: Although congenital hand anomalies are rare, musculoskeletal clinicians should have a basic understanding of their clinical manifestations and the possibility of concurrent anomalies and syndromes. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the embryology of limb development and the molecular pathways involved. We also summarize the clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and principles of surgical treatment for radial longitudinal deficiency, thumb hypoplasia, ulnar longitudinal deficiency, central deficiency, syndactyly, polydactyly, and amniotic constriction band. Although one of the main goals of treatment is to provide a functional upper extremity, musculoskeletal clinicians should be aware of the clinical findings that should trigger referral to evaluate for life-threatening syndromes.Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine 02/2014;
Article: Disorders of the immature carpus.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Carpal disorders in children are often associated with developmental abnormalities of structures surrounding the wrist. In addition, carpal ossification throughout childhood has unique influences on pediatric carpal injury. Because the immature carpus is composed of unossified cartilage, carpal abnormalities in young children are frequently undetectable on plain radiographs. Clinical suspicion of an abnormality may elicit further imaging with MRI, which can provide detailed information about cartilaginous structures.Hand Clinics 12/2006; 22(4):447-63; abstract vi. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Congenital absent digits continue to be described by many confusing terms and are currently classified in categories I, V, and VI of the International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand classification and seven subclassification systems. Very few classification systems provide any logical basis for surgical reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple alphanumerical documentation system to reproducibly describe the morphological or radiographic appearance of congenital absent digits and facilitate communication of these childrens’ hand anomalies from one hand surgeon to another. Methods Dorsal and palmar photographs and PA radiographs of 235 hands in 204 children born with congenital absent digits over a 15-year period were analyzed to determine which digital rays were missing and their level of absence. Each hand can be described by three letters, R (radial), C (central), and U (ulnar), as well as numbers 1–5. The first letter and number designate which rays are missing and the second and third letters and numbers designate which rays remain present. Results There are 15 morphological phenotypes of congenital absent digits. The three most common phenotypes are U4R1 (a thumb but absence of all four fingers), R1U4 (absent thumb), and R5 (aplastic hand). Conclusions This new documentation system allows hand surgeons to describe the simple morphological or radiographic appearance of congenital absent digits; incorporates all the previous subclassification systems that have attempted to describe congenital absent digits in radial, central, and ulnar deficiencies, symbrachydactyly, and congenital constriction ring syndrome; and has subsequently allowed the development of an algorithm which predicts whether conventional or microsurgical reconstruction is indicated for each specific phenotype.Hand 7(4).