Aminoglycoside resistance in Gram-negative blood isolates from various hospitals in Belgium and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Aminoglycoside Resistance Study Group.
ABSTRACT A total of 1102 consecutive clinical blood isolates, including 897 Enterobacteriaceae and 205 non-fermenting bacilli, were obtained from 13 university and university-affiliated hospitals, which were divided into a Northern and a Southern group. Resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmicin, amikacin and isepamicin was determined using a microdilution technique according to NCCLS procedures. The overall mean resistance level was 5.9% for gentamicin, 7.7% for tobramycin, 7.5% for netilmicin, 2.8% for amikacin and 1.2% for isepamicin. Resistance to amikacin and isepamicin was significantly higher in the Northern hospitals than in the Southern hospitals. In total, 157 isolates were found not to be susceptible to aminoglycosides. By PCR, 179 aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms, i.e. 150 genes encoding modifying enzymes and 29 permeability mechanisms, were detected in 148 isolates. A resistance mechanism could not be detected in nine isolates. Moreover, in a further 14 isolates the resistance profile was not fully explained by the detected genes. The aac(6')-I genes were found to be the most predominant resistance mechanism in both the Northern and Southern isolates, followed by aac(3) genes and permeability resistance. A total of 29 non-susceptible isolates harboured a combination of genes, 72.4% of which were a combination with the aac(6')-lb gene. The majority of these combinations were broad-spectrum combinations which represented 9.0% of the resistance mechanisms in non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae and 19.3% in the non-fermenting bacilli.
Article: National epidemiologic surveys of Enterobacter aerogenes in Belgian hospitals from 1996 to 1998.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two national surveys were conducted to describe the incidence and prevalence of Enterobacter aerogenes in 21 Belgian hospitals in 1996 and 1997 and to characterize the genotypic diversity and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical strains of E. aerogenes isolated from hospitalized patients in Belgium in 1997 and 1998. Twenty-nine hospitals collected 10 isolates of E. aerogenes, which were typed by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) using two primers and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. MICs of 10 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. Beta-lactamases were detected by the double-disk diffusion test and characterized by isoelectric point. The median incidence of E. aerogenes colonization or infection increased from 3.3 per 1,000 admissions in 1996 to 4.2 per 1000 admissions in the first half of 1997 (P < 0.01). E. aerogenes strains (n = 260) clustered in 25 AP-PCR types. Two major types, BE1 and BE2, included 36 and 38% of strains and were found in 21 and 25 hospitals, respectively. The BE1 type was indistinguishable from a previously described epidemic strain in France. Half of the strains produced an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, either TEM-24 (in 86% of the strains) or TEM-3 (in 14% of the strains). Over 75% of the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin. Over 90% of the strains were susceptible to cefepime, carbapenems, and aminoglycosides. In conclusion, these data suggest a nationwide dissemination of two epidemic multiresistant E. aerogenes strains in Belgian hospitals. TEM-24 beta-lactamase was frequently harbored by one of these epidemic strains, which appeared to be genotypically related to a TEM-24-producing epidemic strain from France, suggesting international dissemination.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/2001; 39(3):889-96. · 4.15 Impact Factor