Prospective randomized trial comparing bilateral lung volume reduction surgery to pulmonary rehabilitation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
ABSTRACT Several uncontrolled studies report improvement in lung function, gas exchange, and exercise capacity after bilateral lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). We recruited 200 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for a prospective randomized trial of pulmonary rehabilitation versus bilateral LVRS with stapling resection of 20 to 40% of each lung. Pulmonary function tests, gas exchange, 6-min walk distance, and symptom-limited maximal exercise testing were done in all patients at baseline and after 8 wk of rehabilitation. Patients were then randomized to either 3 additional months of rehabilitation or LVRS. Thirty-seven patients met study criteria and were enrolled into the trial. Eighteen patients were in the medical arm; 15 of 18 patients completed 3 mo of additional pulmonary rehabilitation. Thirty-two patients underwent LVRS (19 in the surgical arm, 13 crossover from the medical arm). After 8 wk of pulmonary rehabilitation, pulmonary function tests remained unchanged compared with baseline data. However, there was a trend toward a higher 6-min walk distance (285 +/- 96 versus 269 +/- 91 m, p = 0.14) and total exercise time on maximal exercise test was significantly longer compared with baseline values (7.4 +/- 2.1 versus 5.8 +/- 1.7 min, p < 0.001). In 15 patients who completed 3 mo of additional rehabilitation, there was a trend to a higher maximal oxygen consumption (V O(2)max) (13.3 +/- 3.0 versus 12.6 +/- 3.3, p < 0.08). In contrast, at 3 mo post-LVRS, FVC (2.79 +/- 0.59 versus 2.36 +/- 0.55 L, p < 0.001) and FEV(1) (0.85 +/- 0.3 versus 0.65 +/- 0.16 L, p < 0.005) increased whereas TLC (6.53 +/- 1.3 versus 7.65 +/- 2.1 L, p < 0.001) and residual volume (RV) (3.7 +/- 1.2 versus 4.9 +/- 1.1 L, p < 0.001) decreased when compared with 8 wk postrehabilitation data. In addition, Pa(CO(2)) decreased significantly 3 mo post-LVRS compared with 8 wk postrehabilitation. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD), total exercise time, and V O(2)max were higher after LVRS but did not reach statistical significance. However, when 13 patients who crossed over from the medical to the surgical arm were included in the analysis, the increases in 6MWD (337 +/- 99 versus 282 +/- 100 m, p < 0.001) and V O(2)max (13.8 +/- 4 versus 12.0 +/- 3 ml/kg/min, p < 0.01) 3 mo post-LVRS were highly significant when compared with postrehabilitation data. The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), a generalized measure of quality of life (QOL), was significantly improved after 8 wk of rehabilitation and was maintained after 3 mo of additional rehabilitation. A further improvement in QOL was observed 3 mo after LVRS compared with the initial improvement gained after 8 wk of rehabilitation. There were 3 (9.4%) postoperative deaths, and one patient died before surgery (2.7%). We conclude that bilateral LVRS, in addition to pulmonary rehabilitation, improves static lung function, gas exchange, and QOL compared with pulmonary rehabilitation alone. Further studies need to evaluate the risks, benefits, and durability of LVRS over time.
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ABSTRACT: Under the Freedom of Information Act, we obtained the follow-up data of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) to determine the long-term outcome for "a heterogeneous distribution of emphysema with upper lobe predominance," postulated by the NETT hypothesis to be optimal candidates for lung volume reduction surgery. Using the NETT database, we identified patients with heterogeneous distribution of emphysema with upper lobe predominance and analyzed for the first time follow-up data for those receiving lung volume reduction surgery and those receiving medical management. Furthermore, we compared the results of the NETT reduction surgery group with a previously reported consecutive case series of 250 patients undergoing bilateral lung volume reduction surgery using similar selection criteria. Of the 1218 patients enrolled, 511 (42%) conformed to the NETT hypothesis selection criteria and received the randomly assigned surgical or medical treatment (surgical = 261; medical = 250). Lung volume reduction surgery resulted in a 5-year survival benefit (70% vs 60%; P = .02). Results at 3 years compared with baseline data favored surgical reduction in terms of residual volume reduction (25% vs 2%; P < .001), University of California San Diego dyspnea score (16 vs 0 points; P < .001), and improved St George Respiratory Questionnaire quality of life score (12 points vs 0 points; P < .001). For the 513 patients with a homogeneous pattern of emphysema randomized to surgical or medical treatment, lung volume reduction surgery produced no survival advantage and very limited functional benefit. Patients most likely to benefit from lung volume reduction surgery have heterogeneously distributed emphysema involving the upper lung zones predominantly. Such patients in the NETT trial had results nearly identical to those previously reported in a nonrandomized series of similar patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 09/2010; 140(3):564-72. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) improves lung function, respiratory symptoms, and exercise tolerance in selected patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who have heterogeneous emphysema. However, the reported effects of LVRS on gas exchange are variable, even when lung function is improved. To clarify how LVRS affects gas exchange in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 23 patients were studied before LVRS, 14 of whom were again studied afterwards. We performed measurements of lung mechanics, pulmonary hemodynamics, and ventilation-perfusion (Va/Q) inequality using the multiple inert-gas elimination technique. LVRS improved arterial Po₂ (Pa(O₂)) by a mean of 6 Torr (P = 0.04), with no significant effect on arterial Pco₂ (Pa(CO₂)), but with great variability in both. Lung mechanical properties improved considerably more than did gas exchange. Post-LVRS Pa(O₂) depended mostly on its pre-LVRS value, whereas improvement in Pa(O(2)) was explained mostly by improved Va/Q inequality, with lesser contributions from both increased ventilation and higher mixed venous Po(2). However, no index of lung mechanical properties correlated with Pa(O₂). Conversely, post-LVRS Pa(CO₂) bore no relationship to its pre-LVRS value, whereas changes in Pa(CO₂) were tightly related (r² = 0.96) to variables, reflecting decrease in static lung hyperinflation (intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure and residual volume/total lung capacity) and increase in airflow potential (tidal volume and maximal inspiratory pressure), but not to Va/Q distribution changes. Individual gas exchange responses to LVRS vary greatly, but can be explained by changes in combinations of determining variables that are different for oxygen and carbon dioxide.Journal of Applied Physiology 01/2011; 110(4):1036-45. · 3.75 Impact Factor
Article: Several clinical interests regarding lung volume reduction surgery for severe emphysema: meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We aim to address several clinical interests regarding lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for severe emphysema using meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Eight RCTs published from 1999 to 2010 were identified and synthesized to compare the efficacy and safety of LVRS vs conservative medical therapy. One RCT was obtained regarding comparison of median sternotomy (MS) and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). And three RCTs were available evaluating clinical efficacy of using bovine pericardium for buttressing, autologous fibrin sealant and BioGlue, respectively. Odds ratio (95%CI), expressed as the mortality of group A (the group underwent LVRS) versus group B (conservative medical therapies), was 5.16(2.84, 9.35) in 3 months, 3(0.94, 9.57) in 6 months, 1.05(0.82, 1.33) in 12 months, respectively. On the 3rd, 6th and 12th month, all lung function indices of group A were improved more significantly as compared with group B. PaO2 and PaCO2 on the 6th and 12th month showed the same trend. 6MWD of group A on the 6th month and 12th month were improved significantly than of group B, despite no difference on the 3rd month. Quality of life (QOL) of group A was better than of group B in 6 and 12 months. VATS is preferred to MS, due to the earlier recovery and lower cost. And autologous fibrin sealant and BioGlue seems to be the efficacious methods to reduce air leak following LVRS. LVRS offers the more benefits regarding survival, lung function, gas exchange, exercise capacity and QOL, despite the higher mortality in initial three postoperative months. LVRS, with the optimization of surgical approach and material for reinforcement of the staple lines, should be recommended to patients suffering from severe heterogeneous emphysema.Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 11/2011; 6:148. · 1.19 Impact Factor