Qualitative methods: what are they and why use them?
ABSTRACT To provide an overview of reasons why qualitative methods have been used and can be used in health services and health policy research, to describe a range of specific methods, and to give examples of their application.
Classic and contemporary descriptions of the underpinnings and applications of qualitative research methods and studies that have used such methods to examine important health services and health policy issues.
Qualitative research methods are valuable in providing rich descriptions of complex phenomena; tracking unique or unexpected events; illuminating the experience and interpretation of events by actors with widely differing stakes and roles; giving voice to those whose views are rarely heard; conducting initial explorations to develop theories and to generate and even test hypotheses; and moving toward explanations. Qualitative and quantitative methods can be complementary, used in sequence or in tandem. The best qualitative research is systematic and rigorous, and it seeks to reduce bias and error and to identify evidence that disconfirms initial or emergent hypotheses.
Qualitative methods have much to contribute to health services and health policy research, especially as such research deals with rapid change and develops a more fully integrated theory base and research agenda. However, the field must build on the best traditions and techniques of qualitative methods and must recognize that special training and experience are essential to the application of these methods.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To offer insight into how cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) competence is defined, measured and evaluated and to highlight ways in which the assessment of CBT competence could be further improved, the current study utilizes a qualitative methodology to examine CBT experts' (N = 19) experiences of conceptualizing and assessing the competence of CBT therapists. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore participants' experiences of assessing the competence of CBT therapists. Interview transcripts were then analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis in order to identify commonalities and differences in the way CBT competence is evaluated. Four superordinate themes were identified: (i) what to assess, the complex and fuzzy concept of CBT competence; (ii) how to assess CBT competence, selecting from the toolbox of assessment methods; (iii) who is best placed to assess CBT competence, expertise and independence; and (iv) pitfalls, identifying and overcoming assessment biases. Priorities for future research and ways in which the assessment of CBT competence could be further improved are discussed in light of these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A qualitative exploration of experts' experiences, opinions and recommendations for assessing the competence of CBT therapists. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Themes identified shed light on (i) what to assess; (ii) how to assess; (iii) who is best placed to assess; and (iv) common pitfalls. Priorities for future research and ways in which the assessment of CBT competence could be further improved are discussed in light of these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 04/2015; DOI:10.1002/cpp.1952 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To understand emergency department (ED) physicians' use of electronic documentation in order to identify usability and workflow considerations for the design of future ED information system (EDIS) physician documentation modules. We invited emergency medicine resident physicians to participate in a mixed methods study using task analysis and qualitative interviews. Participants completed a simulated, standardized patient encounter in a medical simulation center while documenting in the test environment of a currently used EDIS. We recorded the time on task, type and sequence of tasks performed by the participants (including tasks performed in parallel). We then conducted semi-structured interviews with each participant. We analyzed these qualitative data using the constant comparative method to generate themes. Eight resident physicians participated. The simulation session averaged 17 minutes and participants spent 11 minutes on average on tasks that included electronic documentation. Participants performed tasks in parallel, such as history taking and electronic documentation. Five of the 8 participants performed a similar workflow sequence during the first part of the session while the remaining three used different workflows. Three themes characterize electronic documentation: (1) physicians report that location and timing of documentation varies based on patient acuity and workload, (2) physicians report a need for features that support improved efficiency; and (3) physicians like viewing available patient data but struggle with integration of the EDIS with other information sources. We confirmed that physicians spend much of their time on documentation (65%) during an ED patient visit. Further, we found that resident physicians did not all use the same workflow and approach even when presented with an identical standardized patient scenario. Future EHR design should consider these varied workflows while trying to optimize efficiency, such as improving integration of clinical data. These findings should be tested quantitatively in a larger, representative study.Applied Clinical Informatics 01/2015; 6(1):27-41. DOI:10.4338/ACI-2014-08-RA-0065 · 0.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The fight against organized crime is a very fertile ground for policymaking at various levels. On one side, because of the perceived transnationality of the phenomenon, national states are inclined to develop harmonized responses within the European or international law frameworks. On the other side, national conceptualizations and manifestations of organized crime often make these harmonizations quite challenging. This paper shares the findings of a socio-legal investigation carried out in England and in Italy through interviews and document analysis, comparing the two national models against organized crime. The paper presents these two models – the Italian Structure Model and the English Activity Model, which are very different in many ways – in order to identify divergences and convergences of policies and practices. This comparative exercise not only improves our understanding of national approaches, beyond cultural, linguistic and legal boundaries, but also improves the dialogue towards concerted efforts at the international level. Nevertheless, the globalization of criminal markets and the internationalization of policies have influenced perceptions of organized crime and related policing tactics at national levels too. This paper will briefly look at international perspectives to assess to what extent divergent and convergent areas between the two models are also areas of interest and focus at the international level, in order to conclude with an enhanced understanding of both models before drawing conclusions.European Journal of Criminology 04/2015; DOI:10.1177/1477370815578196 · 1.00 Impact Factor