Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction? A case-crossover analysis in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP).
ABSTRACT Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.
This study was a case-crossover study within the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program. Exposure in the period immediately preceding MI was compared with exposure during a control period for each case. From April 1993 to December 1994, 699 patients admitted to coronary care units in Stockholm County were interviewed.
During a period of 1 hour after an episode of anger, with an intensity of at least "very angry," the relative risk of MI was 9.0 (95% CI, 4.4-18.2). In patients with premonitory symptoms, the time of disease initiation may be misclassified. When restricting the analyses to those without such symptoms, the trigger risk was 15.7 (95% CI, 7.6-32.4). The possibility of examining effect modification was limited by a lack of statistical power (eight exposed cases). Results of the analyses suggested, however, an increased trigger effect among subjects reporting nonhostile usual behavior patterns, nonovert strategies of coping with aggressive situations (not protesting when being treated unfairly), and nonuse of beta-blockers.
The hypothesis that anger may trigger MI is further supported, with an increased risk lasting for approximately 1 hour after an outburst of anger. It is suggested that the trigger risk may be modified by personal behavior patterns.
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ABSTRACT: One psychopathological mechanism that links anger to coronary artery disease (CAD) is cardiac autonomic imbalance. Blood volume amplitude (BVA) and pulse transit time (PTT) are related to peripheral arterial elasticity and cardiac conduction, which are used as indirect markers for autonomic activation. The purposes of this study were to examine the relationships between BVA and PTT, and the reactivity of BVA and PTT during the anger recall task in patients with CAD.Journal of Cardiology 05/2014; 65(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2014.03.012 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Short-term psychological stress is associated with an immediate physiological response and may be associated with a transiently higher risk of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine whether brief episodes of anger trigger the onset of acute myocardial infarction (MI), acute coronary syndromes (ACS), ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, and ventricular arrhythmia. We performed a systematic review of studies evaluating whether outbursts of anger are associated with the short-term risk of heart attacks, strokes, and disturbances in cardiac rhythm that occur in everyday life. We performed a literature search of the CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases from January 1966 to June 2013 and reviewed the reference lists of retrieved articles and included meeting abstracts and unpublished results from experts in the field. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with inverse-variance-weighted random-effect models. The systematic review included nine independent case-crossover studies of anger outbursts and MI/ACS (four studies), ischaemic stroke (two studies), ruptured intracranial aneurysm (one study), and ventricular arrhythmia (two studies). There was evidence of substantial heterogeneity between the studies (I(2) = 92.5% for MI/ACS and 89.8% for ischaemic stroke). Despite the heterogeneity, all studies found that, compared with other times, there was a higher rate of cardiovascular events in the 2h following outbursts of anger. There is a higher risk of cardiovascular events shortly after outbursts of anger.European Heart Journal 03/2014; 35(21). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehu033 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heart disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women in the United States and worldwide. This review highlights known and emerging risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, as well as lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are all modifiable. Health care providers should be aware of emerging cardiac risk factors in women such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, systemic autoimmune disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and radiation-induced heart disease; psychosocial factors such as mental stress, depression, anxiety, low socioeconomic status, and work and marital stress play an important role in IHD in women. Appropriate recognition and management of an array of risk factors is imperative given the growing burden of IHD and need to deliver cost-effective, quality care for women.Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine 10/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1016/j.tcm.2014.10.005 · 2.07 Impact Factor