The MacArthur Three-City Outcome Study: Evaluating Multi-Informant Measures of Young Children's Symptomatology

Stanford University Medical Center, CA, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.26). 01/2000; 38(12):1580-90. DOI: 10.1097/00004583-199912000-00020
Source: PubMed


Three sites collaborated to evaluate the reliability and validity of 2 measures, developed in tandem to assess symptomatology and impairment in 4- to 8-year-old children: the Berkeley Puppet Interview Symptomatology Scales (BPI-S) and the Health and Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ).
In this case-control study, mothers, teachers, and children reported on multiple dimensions of children's mental health for 120 children (67 community and 53 clinic-referred children).
The BPI-S and the parent and teacher versions of the HBQ demonstrated strong test-retest reliability and discriminant validity on a majority of symptom scales. Medium to strong effect sizes (Cohen d) indicated that children in the clinic-referred group were viewed by all 3 informants as experiencing significantly higher levels of symptomatology than nonreferred, community children.
The availability of a set of multi-informant instruments that are psychometrically sound, developed in tandem, and developmentally appropriate for young children will enhance researchers' ability to investigate and understand symptomatology or the emergence of symptomatology in middle childhood.

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Available from: Marilyn J Essex,
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    • "Recent Nederlands onderzoek laat echter zien dat het inzetten van diagnostische interviews bij jonge kinderen mogelijk al waardevol kan zijn. Ringoot et al (2013) onderzochten de psychometrische eigenschappen van de Berkeley Puppet Interview (Ablow et al., 1999) – een semigestructureerd interview waarbij poppen worden gebruikt om aansluiting te vinden bij het ontwikkelingsniveau van het kind –bij 6375 kinderen van 5-7 jaar. Uit de studie blijkt dat jonge kinderen goed in staat waren om valide informatie te geven over hun emotionele, gedragsmatige en relationele problemen. "
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    ABSTRACT: While child self-reports of psychopathology are increasingly accepted, little standardized instruments are utilized for these practices. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) is an age-appropriate instrument for self-reports of problem behavior by young children.Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the BPI will be reported, specifically, test–retest reliability, intra-class correlations, congruent and concurrent validity.In a sample of 300 children (M age = 7.04 years, SD = 1.15), the BPI was administered twice, with a 1-year interval. Parents and teachers filled out questionnaires about their children’s problem behavior.Findings from the analyses indicate that the BPI subscales have sufficient test–retest reliability and can be reliably coded. Furthermore, findings suggest adequate congruent validity. More support for concurrent validity is found among externalizing problems in comparison to internalizing problems.With regard to the present study, the BPI seems to have adequate psychometric properties. As such, the BPI enables interviewing young children about their psychopathology-related symptoms in a standardized way. The BPI could be applied in clinical practice as a complement to the diagnostic cycle, allowing children’s self-reports to play an increasingly important role.
    Child and Youth Care Forum 04/2014; 43(2). DOI:10.1007/s10566-013-9235-9 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    • "The HBQ was derived from the Ontario Child Health Study measure designed to map onto DSM-III-R symptom criteria (Boyle et al., 1993). The HBQ-P has strong psychometric properties and has been used to assess child mental health across multiple ages from 4.5 years into adolescence (Ablow et al., 1999; Essex et al., 2006; Shirtcliff and Essex, 2008) The mental health scales have been shown to discriminate groups of children with and without signs of early psychopathology (Luby et al., 2002). The HBQ-P, administered in questionnaire format, assesses symptoms ranging from " never or not true " to " often or very true. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs) including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior). Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N=26) and non-exposed (N=38) were studied at age 6 years (M=6.3 SD=0.5) using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F) to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester) and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale). Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire). Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD) behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele) remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold), EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms – in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L) alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance – better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children’s EF performance was worse than that of any other group.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 10/2013; 7:180. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2013.00180 · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    • ") measures mental health symptoms , physical health, and academic and social functioning; it discriminates between clinic-referred children and controls (Ablow et al., 1999) and corresponds well with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) symptoms and diagnoses in children (Lemery-Chalfant et al., 2007). Finally, we included symptoms of major depressive disorder from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (Fisher et al., 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Rumination is an established cognitive vulnerability for depression. Despite substantial work on the environmental origins of rumination, the heritability of rumination has not been examined and it is not known whether rumination accounts for some of the genetic vulnerability associated with depression. 756 adolescent twins ages 12-14 years completed the Response Styles Questionnaire and multiple measures of depressive symptoms. Brooding correlated positively and distraction correlated negatively with concurrent depressive symptoms. Estimated heritabilites were 54% for depression, 21% for brooding, 37% for reflection, and 30% for distraction. Bivariate genetic analyses suggested that (1) individual differences in distraction share both genetic and environmental sources of variation with depression; and (2) although the heritable influences on brooding are small, these heritable influences account for the majority of the relationship between brooding and depression (h(2) = .62).
    07/2013; 1(3):316-322. DOI:10.1177/2167702612472884
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