Langer's lines: to use or not to use.
ABSTRACT Thirty-six differently named guidelines have developed as surgeons have searched for an ideal guide for elective incisions. Many surgeons prefer Langer's lines. These lines were developed by Karl Langer, an anatomy professor, from cadavers in rigor mortis. However, Kraissl preferred lines oriented perpendicular to the action of the underlying muscles. Later, Borges described relaxed skin tension lines, which follow furrows formed when the skin is relaxed and are produced by pinching the skin. However, these are only guidelines; there are many contributors to the camouflaging of scars, including wrinkle and contour lines. Borges's and Kraissl's lines (not Langer's) may be the best guides for elective incisions of the face and body, respectively.
Article: The tangled web of Langer's lines.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Langer's lines are often considered to be guides for elective surgical incisions. Interestingly, Karl Langer was not the first to describe the property of skin that leads to the lines he depicted, nor are these lines in common use today. Rather, it is common that relaxed skin tension lines provide a guide for cosmetically pleasing surgical results. Nevertheless, Langer did conduct extensive studies on human skin that remain as a scholarly body of work. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 08/2013; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The S-shaped incision is a novel technique we have developed to minimise wound complications for the insertion of bilateral deep brain stimulators. METHODS: An S-shaped incision incorporating both burrholes allows better exposure compared to the traditional bilateral incisions. The burrholes are drilled under each limb of the S and the incision does not run across them, decreasing the risk of infection. The electrodes are subsequently tunneled down the right side and connected to the battery. CONCLUSION: The use of the S-shaped incision results in less wound and electrode complications compared to the traditional bilateral linear incisions in our experience.Acta Neurochirurgica 05/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many clinical studies on scar therapy are reported in the literature, but only silicone gel sheeting and corticosteroid injections are supported by accurate prospective controlled studies. This prospective multicenter cross-over phase 2 study tested the effectiveness of a topical cyanoacrylate compared with silicone gel in improving postsurgical scars Patients presenting with symmetric breast scars after augmentation or reduction mammaplasty were enrolled in the study. From the same day as stitch removal, the cyanoacrylate was applied on one side every 3 to 5 days and the silicone gel on the other side twice a day for 3 months. Assessments of patients and external observers using a visual analog scale were recorded at scheduled visits during 1 year, and scars were photographed. Objective evaluations included measurements of scar width, length, and elevation. The statistical significance of objective parameter modifications was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test Positive effects of both tested products were observed during the scar maturation process, and final scars of good quality were achieved without any major adverse effect. The topical cyanoacrylate proved to be more efficacious in preventing scar widening, and this result was statistically significant The tested topical cyanoacrylate had a positive effect on the scar maturation process at least comparable with that of topical silicone gel.Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 11/2010; 35(3):373-81. · 1.26 Impact Factor