Beneficial effect of piracetam monotherapy on post-ischaemic palatal myoclonus.
ABSTRACT A 70-year-old hypertensive woman suffered a subarachnoid haemorrhage followed by delayed vasospasm in the basal cerebral arteries. This resulted in multiple ischaemic lesions in the right middle cerebral artery region and contralateral post-ischaemic palatal myoclonus. In this setting, piracetam administered in high doses (24-36 g/day), abolished the myoclonus observed in this patient. Although there is evidence from case reports and clinical trials of the therapeutic efficacy of piracetam in patients with skeletal myoclonus of various causes, to our knowledge this is the first report indicating the beneficial effect of piracetam monotherapy on post-ischaemic palatal myoclonus.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. – Post brainstem lesion dysphagia is frequently associated with palatal myoclonus (PM) but the correlation between these two symptoms is still unclear.Objective. – The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between PM and dysphagia, and if PM could itself induce dysphagia.Patients and methods. – Twelve patients suffering from post brainstem lesion PM and dysphagia; 10 male and two female, mean aged of 50.5 years, were assessed using clinical examination, radiological and endoscopic examination of deglutition.Results. – In three cases, PM were associated with pharyngeal area decreasing, laryngeal aspiration, and dysphagia.Discussion. – This study confirms the hypothesis of close relationship between PM and dysphagia. In these cases, specific dysphagia therapy should be recommended.Conclusion. – Post brainstem lesion dysphagia is sometimes associated with PM and in some cases, there is probably a relationship between PM and swallowing disorders of these patients.Annales de Réadaptation et de Médecine Physique. 01/2004;
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ABSTRACT: Piracetam, the prototype of the so-called nootropic drugs' is used since many years in different countries to treat cognitive impairment in aging and dementia. Findings that piracetam enhances fluidity of brain mitochondrial membranes led to the hypothesis that piracetam might improve mitochondrial function, e.g., might enhance ATP synthesis. This assumption has recently been supported by a number of observations showing enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced ATP production, and reduced sensitivity for apoptosis in a variety of cell and animal models for aging and Alzheimer disease. As a specific consequence, substantial evidence for elevated neuronal plasticity as a specific effect of piracetam has emerged. Taken together, this new findings can explain many of the therapeutic effects of piracetam on cognition in aging and dementia as well as different situations of brain dysfunctions.Frontiers in Neuroscience 01/2010; 4.
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ABSTRACT: Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are mostly investigated as a means to provide paralyzed people with new communication channels with the external world. However, the communication between brain and artificial devices also offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamical properties of neural systems. This review focuses on bidirectional interfaces, which operate in two ways by translating neural signals into input commands for the device and the output of the device into neural stimuli. We discuss how bidirectional BMIs help investigating neural information processing and how neural dynamics may participate in the control of external devices. In this respect, a bidirectional BMI can be regarded as a fancy combination of neural recording and stimulation apparatus, connected via an artificial body. The artificial body can be designed in virtually infinite ways in order to observe different aspects of neural dynamics and to approximate desired control policies.Frontiers in Neuroscience 01/2010; 4:44.